Cell Structure and Functions list

Table of Cell Structure and Functions.

Cell partStructureFunctions
Cell Wall*Nonliving, rigid, composed of cellulose, present.
*In plants, the cell wall is made mostly of a substance called cellulose, which is like a long chain of sugars.
*In bacteria, their cell wall is made of a substance called peptidoglycan, which is a mix of sugars and amino acids.
*Provides rigidity and shape to plant cells.
*It provides structural support, protection, and mechanical strength to the cell.
Cell membrane*Living, selectively permeable flexible.
*The cell membrane is like a protective skin that surrounds all cells.
*The cell membrane is made up of molecules called phospholipids.
*Controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
*Keeps the contents together.
*It acts as a protective barrier.
*It plays a role in cell recognition and signalling processes.
Cytoplasm*Jelly-like, thick ground substance that is found inside cells.
*The cytoplasm is composed of water, proteins, salts, and various molecules.
*Holds all organelles and provides a medium for all cell activities.
Nucleus*Rounded or oval, surrounded by a double-membraned nuclear envelope.
*The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
*The control centre of the cell (controls all cell activities Inherits characters from parent cell to daughter cells during cell division.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)*Network of membrane-bound channels.
*Two main regions of ER
*A. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER).
*B. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER).
*Forms supporting framework.
*Helps in the transport of substances within the cell.
*It plays an important role in the synthesis, processing, and transport of proteins and lipids.
*Calcium storage and Release.
Golgi complex*Stacks of tubes (cisternae) vacuoles and vesicles.*Associated with secretion and storage.
*The Golgi complex plays a vital role in modifying proteins that are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
*Its main function is to deliver proteins and lipids, to specific destinations within the cell and for secretion.
Mitochondria*Double-membraned structures with respiratory enzymes.*The powerhouse of the cell due to its role in energy production.
*Site of respiration and release of energy.
Plastids*Double-membraned structures (only in plant cells).
*Plastids have a double-membrane structure, consisting of an outer membrane and an inner membrane. They also have an internal space known as the stroma, which contains a matrix-like substance.
*Three main types of plastids are:
*(a) Chloroplasts
*(b) Chromoplasts
*(c) Amyloplasts
*Site of photosynthesis (Chloroplasts).
*Give colour to flowers and fruits (chromoplasts).
*Store starch, proteins and fats (leucoplasts).
Ribosomes*Small granules, scattered in the cytoplasm or attached to ER membranes.*Protein factory of cells
Lysosomes*Contain tissue-dissolving enzymes.
*Lysosomes have a spherical shape and are surrounded by a single membrane known as the lysosomal membrane.
*The interior of the lysosome is filled with an acidic fluid called the lumen.
*Suicide bags.
*Help in the digestion of foreign bodies and worn-out parts of the cell.
*Lysosomal enzymes are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the Golgi apparatus,
Centrosome*Formed small tubules (only in animal cells).
*It is often located near the nucleus, close to the cell’s center.
*The centrosome is composed of two centrioles and surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM).
*Formation of the spindle during cell division.
*The centrosome plays a crucial role in cell division, organization of the cytoskeleton, and cell motility.
Vacuole*Clear space in the centre of the plant cells; filled with cell sap.
*Vacuoles have a single membrane called the tonoplast, which surrounds the fluid-filled interior known as the vacuolar lumen.
*Vacuoles can store various substances such as water, ions, nutrients, pigments, sugars, proteins, and secondary metabolites.
*Vacuoles play a role in waste management and the degradation of cellular components.
*Vacuoles can participate in plant defense mechanisms.

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