Power Sharing CBSE 10 Questions and Answers

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Exercise Questions and Answers

1. What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.

Ans: Different Forms of Power Sharing in Modern Democracies:

(i) Power sharing has existed in different organs of government.

(ii) Power sharing seen at different levels of government.

(iii) Power sharing seen in different social groups.

(iv) Power sharing among different political parties, pressure groups, and movements viz.

  I. Power Sharing in Governance:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary

II. Power sharing among governments at different levels:

  1. Centre
  2. State 
  3. Local self

III. Power-sharing among different social groups:

  1. Linguistic
  2. Religious groups,

 e.g., Community Government in Belgium.

IV. Power sharing among political parties, pressure groups, and movements:

      (A. Political Parties

      (B. Pressure Groups

       (C. Movements

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2. State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.

Ans:  Prudential Reason: A prudential reason for power sharing is that it leads to an avoidance of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of the political order. For example, in India, Hindi has not been imposed on the southern states.

Moral Reason: A moral reason for power sharing is that it upholds the spirit of democracy. In a truly democratic setup, the citizens have the right to be consulted on governance. In India, the citizens can come together to debate and criticise the policies and decisions of the government. This puts pressure on the government to rethink policies and its decisions.

3. After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.

Thomman – Power sharing is necessary only in societies that have religious, linguistic, or ethnic divisions.

 Mathayi – Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.

Ouseph- Every society needs some form of power-sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.

Ans: I agree with the conclusion of Ouseph as every society needs some form of power-sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions. Power sharing leads to efficiency. Democracy itself stands for the people of the government, if people are consulted in the decision-making process then it instills a sense of participation in them. In power-sharing system we tend to have lesser conflicts in terms of law and order with the government. The people will be more satisfied with the government if they have a say in the decision-making process.

4. The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate in this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power-sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in about 50 words.

Ans: The ban on speaking French in the town’s schools in Merchtem is not in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power-sharing arrangements because this is a Flemish town. Dutch is spoken by the people in this region. The ban is an example of the imposition of the majority on the minority which is against the principle of accommodation under which the Belgian leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. However, they amended their constitution to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the country. On the other hand, the ban on speaking French may result in strained relations between French-speaking and Dutch-speaking communities.

5. Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this.

“We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy.”

Ans: The following prudential reasons are cited in the passage for power sharing.

(A) Reducing corruption by giving power into the hands of the people and thus, making them responsible for their own decisions.

(B) Increasing administrative efficiency by delegating the decision-making function to the people affected by it.

(C) Improving the efficiency of the system by reducing the number of middlemen, and transferring the planning and implementation to the people concerned through the Panchayats.

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6. Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power sharing. Identify those who are in favour of power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below. Power sharing:

i. reduce conflict among different communities

ii. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness

iii. delays decision-making process

iv. accommodates diversities

v. increases instability and divisiveness

vi. promotes people’s participation in government

vii. undermines the unity of a country

A. i, ii, iv, vi

B. I, iii, v, vi

C. I, ii, iv, vii

D. ii, iii, iv, i

Ans: in favour of the power-sharing code- (A. i, ii, iv, vi)

7. Consider the following statements about power-sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.

i. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority of people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.

ii. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.

iii. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language, and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.

iv. The transformation of Belgium from a unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

Options

(A) i, ii, iii, and iv

(B) i, ii, and iv

(C) iii and iv

(D) ii, iii, and iv

Ans: (D. ii, iii and iv.

8. Match List I (forms of power sharing) with List II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:

 List IList II
iPower shared among different organs of governmentA. Community government  
IiPower shared among governments at different levelsB. Separation of powers  
IiiPower shared by different social groupsC. Coalition government  
ivPower shared by two or more political parties.D. Federal government  

Ans:

 List IList II
iPower shared among different organs of governmentB. Separation of powers  
IiPower shared among governments at different levelsD. Federal Government  
IiiPower shared by different social groupsA. Community Government  
ivPower shared by two or more political parties.C. Coalition Government  

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9. Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:

A. Power sharing is good for democracy.

B. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

Which of these statements are true and false?

(A) A is true but B is false

(B) Both A and B are true

(C) Both A and B are false

(D) A is false but B is true

Ans: B. both A and B are true.

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Additional Questions and Answers

A. Multiple choice questions

1. Democracy means.

A. choose their government through the election

B. rule by the people of the country

C. both a & b

D. none of them

Ans: C. both a and b

2. In Brussels, _______ people speak French and ________ people speak dutch.

A. 80%, 20%

B. 20%, 80%

C. 50%, 50%

D. none of them.

Ans: A. 80% 20%.

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3. Who did get the benefits of economic development and education facilities?

A. French speaking

B. Dutch speaking

C. German speaking

D. All of them

Ans: B. Dutch speaking

4. Power sharing is desirable because it helps:

A. to reduce possibilities of conflicts

B. to increase percentage of voters

C. to increase awareness between people

D. none of them

Ans: A. to reduce possibilities of conflicts  

5. The government bodies are

A. legislature

B. executive

C. judiciary

D. all of them

Ans: D. all of them

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6. Which major social group constituted the largest share in population of Sri Lanka?

A. Sri Lankan Tamils

B. Sri Lanka

C. Belgium

D. Tamils

Ans: A. Srilankan Tamils

7. An example of horizontal sharing of power:

A. power shared among different organs of the government

B. power shared among different governments at different levels

C. power shared among a different social groups

D. power shared among different political parties

Ans: A. power shared among different organs of the government.

8. An example of the federal government:

A. power shared among different organs of the government

B. power shared among different governments at different levels

C. power shared among a different social group

D. power shared among different political parties

Ans: B. power sharing among different governments at different levels.

9. Community government is a good example of

A. power shared among different organs of the government

B. power shared among different governments at different levels

C. power shared among a different social groups

D. power shared among different political parties

Ans: C. power shared among a different social groups

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10. Belgium is an example of

A. Community Government

B. federal government

C. horizontal sharing of power

D. none of them

Ans: A. Community Government

11. Sri Lankan government is an example

A. unitary government

B. monarchy

C. federal government

D. none of them

Ans: A. unitary government

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B. Short questions and answers.

1. What are the effects of majoritarian government?

Ans:

  • In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.
  • The governments followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
  • A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.

2. Describe accommodation in Belgium.

Ans:

  • The Belgian leaders took a different path.
  • Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country.
  • The arrangement they worked out is different from any other country and is very innovative.

3. What do you mean by community government?

Ans: the community government is the power of the government regarding cultural, education, and language issues.

4.“Power sharing good for democracy” explain.

Ans: power sharing is an essential feature of democracy. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflicts between social groups and gives stability to the political order.

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C. Long questions and answers

1. what is the element of the Belgium model?

Ans: The element of the Belgium model is

  • the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of the majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally
  • some powers of the central government have been given to state governments of two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government.
  • Brussels has a separate government in which both communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community accepted equal representation in the Central Government.
  • Apart from the Central and the State Governments, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French, and German-speaking- no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

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2. Why power sharing is desirable?

Ans: there are two reasons:

  • Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.
  • There is a second, deeper reason why power sharing is good for democracies. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governeD.

3. Describe power-sharing arrangements in modern democracies.

Ans: power-sharing arrangements in modern democracies can take many forms like

  • Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. This is a horizontal distribution of power.
  • Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Such a general government for the entire country is usually called the federal government.
  • Power may also be shared among different social groups such as religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community government’ in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement.
  • Power-sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups, and movements control or influence those in power. In a democracy, the citizens must have the freedom to choose among various contenders for power. In contemporary democracies, this takes the form of competition among different parties. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hanD.

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