CBSE 10 Polity Chapter 5 Outcomes of Democracy Questions and Answers

Outcomes of Democracy Questions and Answers


Exercise question and answer

1. How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?

Ans: Democracy produces an accountable government: it is right to expect democracy to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the people. The democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for citizens to take part in making decisions.

Democracy produces responsive government: Democracy government is elected by the people and they are responsible for the needs and expectations of the citizens. Democracies succeed in setting up regular and free elections and open public debate. But they fail to provide a fair chance in elections and public debate.

Democracy produces a legitimate government: A democratic government is better than its alternatives because a democratic government is a legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, and not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is the people’s government. That is why, there is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.

2. What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?

Ans: There are two conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities:

  • It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply ruled by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority to give the general view. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
  • It is also necessary that rule by the majority does not become rule by the majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. Rule by majority means that in the case of every decision or the case of every election, different persons and groups may and can form a majority. Democracy remains democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in the majority at some point in time. If someone is barred from being in the majority based on birth, then the democratic rule ceases to be accommodative for that person or group.

3. Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions: 

  • Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.

Ans:  This statement is incorrect because there is no such relationship between democracy and rich people. The economic development of the nation depends on resources, policies, and government opening the path to attracting investment. if the dictatorship can bring wealth to the nation then Nigeria must be a rich country. But it is not true. 

  • Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.

Ans: Yes, Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens. Democracies are based on political equality. All individuals have equal rights in elections. Economic inequalities grow when individuals come into the political arena on equal feet. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes and their share in the total income of the country has been increasing. Those at the bottom of society have very little to depend upon and their incomes have been declining. Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.

  • Government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.

Ans: The statement is not true. Poor countries focused on human resources to be developed. The country is made by people. Therefore, their citizen should not be uneducated and unhealthy because without them country cannot grow. For the growth of a country, their citizen must be well-educated and healthy. The human development of a country judges the country based on education and healthy. So it is important to invest in health and education.

  • In democracy all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of any domination and conflict.

Ans: Yes, in a democracy all citizens have one vote. It is important to understand that it is not conflict-free system. Some groups dominate others in democracy and arise conflict occasionally. That’s why, democracy follows the constitution which negotiates with conflict.

4. Identify the challenges to democracy in the following descriptions. Also, suggest policy/institutional mechanism to deepen democracy in the given situations:

  • Following a High Court directive, a temple in Orissa that had separate entry doors for Dalits and non-Dalits allowed entry for all from the same door.

Ans: This is challengeable to democracy. There should not be the practice of such discrimination based on caste, creed, colour, and gender. It is against the law and constitution. But it has been running in our country for centuries. We can take legal action against them. Our constitution clearly says that any kind of discrimination will be addressed as a crime and they get a punishment for this.

  • A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India.

Ans: A large of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India because of economic inequality. Farmers in our country grow crops in villages by taking loans from banks and money lenders. If the weather condition is not favourable to them. They have faced many problems. They cannot get money by selling crops and cannot pay back to banks and moneylenders. Moneylenders threaten them for loans. Then farmers take such steps as suicide. These kinds of cases are increasing nowadays. The government should provide them with fertilizers and seeds at cheap rates.

  • Following an allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police, an enquiry has been ordered.

Ans: Allegations of killing three civilians in Gandwara by the Jammu and Kashmir police in a fake encounter raises questions about the police force of the state. The challenge here is to control the power of the police and other authoritative officials. People should restore their faith in government. The government should punish the culprit.

5. In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct– democracies have successfully eliminated:

A. conflicts among people

B. economic inequalities among people

C. differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated.

D. the idea of political inequality

Ans: D. The idea of political inequality

6. In the context of assessing democracy, which among the following is the odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:

A. free and fair elections

B. dignity of the individual

C. majority rule

D. equal treatment before law

Ans: C. Majority rule

7. Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that:

A. democracy and development go together.

B. inequalities exist in democracies.

C. inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.

D. dictatorship is better than democracy.

Ans: C. inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.

8. Read the passage below:

Nannu is a daily wage earner. He lives in Welcome Mazdoor Colony, a slum habitation in East Delhi. He lost his ration card and applied for a duplicate one in January 2004. He made several rounds to the local Food and Civil Supplies office for the next three months. But the clerks and officials would not even look at him, leave alone do his job or bother to tell him the status of his application. Ultimately, he filed an application under the Right to Information Act asking for the daily progress made on his application, names of the officials, who were supposed to act on his application and what action would be taken against these officials for their inaction. Within a week of filing application under the Right to Information Act, he was visited by an inspector from the Food Department, who informed him that the card had been made and he could collect it from the office. When Nannu went to collect his card next day, he was given a very warm treatment by the Food and Supply Officer (FSO), who is the head of a Circle. The FSO offered him tea and requested him to withdraw his application under the Right to Information, since his work had already been done.

What does Nannu’s example show?

Ans: Nannu,s example shows that common people should be aware of their rights. So, they can not face many problems. And they should use their rights without any fear.

What impact did Nannu’s action have on officials?

Ans: Nannu’s action has a significant effect on the officials who not only made his ration card but also offered him a cup of tea at the office of the Food and Supply Officer. He was given proper respect. However, the Food and Supply Officer requested him to withdraw his application because his ration card had been prepared.

Ask your parents their experiences when they approach government officials to attend to their problems.

Ans: Answer yourself.


Additional question and answer

Multiple choice question and answer

1. Which one is the better form of government?

a)Democracy

b) Dictatorship

c) Both democracy and dictatorship

Ans: a) Democracy

2. Which statement is true about democracy?

a) Promotes equality among citizens;

b) Enhances the dignity of the individual;

c) Improves the quality of decision-making;

d) Provides a method to resolve conflicts;

  1. only a
  2. c and b
  3. d
  4. all of them

Ans: d) all of them

3. Who should be accountable to people?

a) Democracy government

b) Non-democracy government

c) Both

Ans: a) Democracy government

4. In which era dictatorship has supported economic growth?

a) From 1970 to 2001

b) From 1897 to 1999

c) From 1900 to 2000

d) From 1900 to 2005

Ans: c) From 1900 to 2000

True or false

5. Democracy takes more time to make a decision.

Ans: True

6. Non-democracy governments are accountable to citizens.

Ans: False

7. Democracy government is a legitimate government.

Ans: True

8. Democracy government gives a guarantee of economic development.

Ans: False

9. Democracy governments are free from corruption.

Ans: False

10. Democracy based on political equality.

Ans: True

11. Bangladesh people live in poverty.

Ans: True


Short answer type question

12. Which is the better form of government and why?

Ans: Democracy is a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative. We felt that democracy was better because it:

Promotes equality among citizens;

Enhances the dignity of the individual;

Improves the quality of decision-making;

Provides a method to resolve conflicts; and

Allows room to correct mistakes

13. What did democracy provide us?

Ans: There are some things that democracy must provide. In a democracy, we are most concerned with ensuring that people will have the right to choose their rulers and that people will have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision-making, that affects them all. Therefore, the most basic outcome of democracy should be that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

14. How did democracy government make transparency in citizens?

Ans: democratic decisions will be based on norms and procedures. So, the citizen can get their information through procedures. She has the right to know about the decision. This is known as transparency.

15. what did people want from democracy government?

Ans: It is right to expect democracy to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the people. The democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for citizens to take part in making decisions.

16. Did the democratic government fulfill the need and demands of citizens?

Ans: No, citizens expect to be attentive to the needs and demands for free corruption in democratic government. But they failed on these two counts. Democracies often ignore the needs of the people and the demands of the majority of their population.

17.Democracy governments are free from corruption.”

Is this statement true? Explain.

Ans: no, it is not true. We always hear about corruption in our country. But most of the corruption is related to the government. Their members are doing this.

The routine tales of corruption are enough to convince us that democracy is not free of this evil. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people.

18. When did economic inequality grow?

Ans: Economic inequalities grow when individuals come into the political arena on equal feet. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes and their share in the total income of the country has been increasing. Those at the bottom of society have very little to depend upon and their incomes have been declining. Sometimes they face difficulty to meet their basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, housing, education, and health.

19. Why Bangladesh people lived in poverty?

Ans: Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. We have already studied poverty in India. The poor constitute a large proportion of our voters and no party will like to lose their votes. Yet democratically elected governments do not appear to be as keen to address the question of poverty as you would expect them to. The situation is much worse in some other countries. In Bangladesh, more than half of its population lives in poverty. People in several poor countries are now dependent on the rich countries even for food supplies.

20. Example of poverty countries.

Ans: poverty countries are India, Bangladesh, etc.

21. What was the women’s condition in democracy?

Ans: Most societies across the world were historically male-dominated societies. After long struggles, women get equal treatment in a democratic society but still, they are not treated with respect. But once the principle is recognised then women get a chance legally and morally.

In a non-democratic, the principle of individual freedom and dignity would not have the legal and moral force in women’s unacceptability. The same is true of caste inequalities.

22. “Democracy takes more time to make decisions.” Why?

Ans: Let us think in terms of costs. Imagine a government making decisions very fast but not accepted by the people. In contrast, the democratic government will take time to make decisions at followed procedures and decisions may be more acceptable and effective. Then the cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.


Long answer type question

23. How did democracy and non-democracy different from each other?

Ans: Some people think that democracy produces less effective government. Non-democratic rulers make very quick decisions because they do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about majorities and public opinion. Democracy takes time to make any decision because they have to negotiate.

Let us think in terms of costs. Imagine a government making decisions very fast but not accepted by the people. In contrast, the democratic government will take time to make decisions at followed procedures and decisions may be more acceptable and effective. Then the cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.

Now look at the other side – democratic decisions will be based on norms and procedures. So, the citizen can get their information through procedures. She has the right to know about the decision. This is known as transparency. This factor is missing from a non-democratic government.

A democratic government is better than its alternatives because a democratic government is a legitimate government.

24. How did people practice democracy?

Ans: If you wanted to measure democracies based on expected outcomes. You can practices regular, free, and fair elections, open public debate on major policies and legislations, and citizens’ right to information about the government and its functioning.

Democracies succeed in setting up regular and free elections and open public debate. But they fail to provide a fair chance in elections and public debate. Democratic governments do not share information with citizens.

In substantive terms, citizens expect to be attentive to the needs and demands for free corruption in democratic government. But they failed on these two counts. Democracies often ignore the needs of the people and the demands of the majority of their population.

The routine tales of corruption are enough to convince us that democracy is not free of this evil. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people.

A democratic government is better than its alternatives because a democratic government is a legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, and not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is the people’s government. That is why, there is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.

As the accompanying evidence from South Asia shows, support exists in countries with democratic regimes and non-democratic regimes. Democracy can generate its support because people want to be ruled by representatives who are elected by them.

25. Why did democracy not help in economic growth?

Ans: If you consider all democracies and all dictatorships for the fifty years between 1950 and 2000, dictatorships have slightly higher rates of economic growth. Economic development is not the only reason to reject democracy. Economic development depends on several factors including the country’s population, global situation, cooperation from other countries, and economic priorities adopted by the country, etc.

Democracy cannot give a guarantee of economic development. But we can expect democracy not to lag behind dictatorships in this respect. Democracy has several positive outcomes.

26. Why did democracy not reduce economic inequality?

Ans: Democracies are based on political equality. All individuals have equal rights in elections. Economic inequalities grow when individuals come into the political arena on equal feet. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes and their share in the total income of the country has been increasing. Those at the bottom of society have very little to depend upon and their incomes have been declining. Sometimes they face difficulty to meet their basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, housing, education, and health.

In actual life, democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. We have already studied poverty in India. The poor constitute a large proportion of our voters and no party will like to lose their votes. Yet democratically elected governments do not appear to be as keen to address the question of poverty as you would expect them to. The situation is much worse in some other countries. In Bangladesh, more than half of its population lives in poverty. People in several poor countries are now dependent on the rich countries even for food supplies.

27. How can we resolve the conflicts among different groups?

Ans: Society cannot resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences. Democracy is best suited to produce this outcome. Non-democratic regimes ignore or suppress internal social differences. democracy regimes can handle social differences, divisions, and conflict. But the example of Sri Lanka reminds us that democracy must fulfill two conditions to achieve this outcome: 

  • It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply ruled by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority to give the general view. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
  • It is also necessary that rule by the majority does not become rule by the majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. Rule by majority means that in the case of every decision or the case of every election, different persons and groups may and can form a majority. Democracy remains democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in the majority at some point in time. If someone is barred from being in the majority based on birth, then the democratic rule ceases to be accommodative for that person or group.

28. How can we know that democracy is successful?

Ans: As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and want to make democracy even better. That is why, people expect more from democracy and have many complaints. The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy, it shows that people have developed awareness and the ability to expect and to look critically at power holders and the high and the mighty.

A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project: it transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen. Most individuals today believe that their vote makes a difference in the way the government is run and in their self-interest.


Related Links

Share your love

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *