CBSE 10 Geography chapter 3 Water Resource Questions and Answers

Exercise question and answer

1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’.

(a) Region with high annual rainfall.

(b) Region having high annual rainfall and large population.

(c) Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.

(d) Region having low rainfall and low population.

Ans:

A.Region with high annual rainfall.not suffering from water scarcity
B.Region having high annual rainfall and large population.suffering from water scarcity
C.Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.suffering from water scarcity
D.Region having low rainfall and low population.not suffering from water scarcity

(ii) Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multi-purpose river projects?

(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.

(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow helps to control floods.

(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.

(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.

Ans: (c) multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.

(iii) Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.

(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.

(b) Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.

(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.

(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Indira Gandhi Canal.

Ans: (a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have resulted in improper utilisation of water resources.

(b) Regulating and damming of rivers does affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.

(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.

(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting popularity has declined due to high water availability from Indira Gandhi Canal.

2 . Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.

Ans: freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves within the hydrological cycle ensuring that water is a renewable resource.

(ii) What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?

Ans:  water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water, and unequal access to it. Many of our cities are such examples. A large population requires more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food. Hence, to facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the largest consumer of water. Most farmers have their own wells and tube-wells in their farms for irrigation to increase their productivity. This has adversely affected water availability and food security of the people.

(iii) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.

Ans: Multipurpose River projects advantages

  • irrigation,
  • electricity production,
  • flood control,
  • inland navigation
  • fish breeding
  • Water supply for industrial and domestic purposes

Multi-purpose river project disadvantages

  • The natural flow of water is affected
  • Aquatic life gets affected
  • Submergence of land in the surrounding areas
  • Ecological consequences
  • Large scale displacement of local people
  • the multi-purpose river projects also destroy local flora and fauna. Many native villages get submerged, and people lose their livelihood, with little or no hope of rehabilitation.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.

Ans: Rain water harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan.

  • In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water.
  • The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide. The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard.
  • They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.
  • The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers.
  • Rainwater, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water. Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the ‘tanka’ to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

(ii) Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.

Ans: in many parts of rural and urban India, modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.

  • In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their household’s rooftop, rainwater harvesting system to meet their water needs. Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater. Gendathur receives an annual precipitation of 1,000 mm, and with 80 per cent of collection efficiency and of about 10 fillings, every house can collect and use about 50,000 litres of water annually. From the 20 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested annually amounts to 1,00,000 litres.
  • Tamil Nadu has made roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters.
  • In Meghalaya, a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes, is prevalent. About 18-20 litres of water enters the bamboo pipe system, gets transported over hundreds of metres, and finally reduces to 20-80 drops per minute ate the site of the plant.

Additional question and answer

Multiple choice Questions

1. how much earth’s surface is covered with water?

a) Three-fourth

b) Fourth-three

c) One-third

d) None of them

Ans: a) Three-fourth

2. how did groundwater renew?

  1. Hydroclean cycle
  2. Hydrological cycle
  3. Both of them
  4. None of them

Ans: b) Hydrological cycle

3. when people can possibly live with the scarcity of water?

  1. By 2030
  2. By 2050
  3. By 2025
  4. None of them

Ans: c) by 2025

4. from where did we get fresh water?

  1. Precipitation
  2. Surface run off
  3. Groundwater
  4. All of them

Ans: d) all of them

5. full form of MNC.

  1. Multination company
  2. Multinational company
  3. Manmade national company
  4. None of them

Ans: b) Multinational company

6. how much power did hydroelectric give to MNC?

  1. 22%
  2. 32%
  3. 25%
  4. 35%

Ans: a) 22%

7. JJM stands for

  1. Jal Jiayang Mission
  2. Jeevan Jal Mission
  3. Jal Jivanyapan mission
  4. Jal Jeevan mission

Ans: d) Jal Jeevan Mission

8. which city have the first sophisticated water harvesting system in the first century B.C?

  1. Allahabad (Sringaverapura near Allahabad)
  2. Srinagar
  3. Delhi
  4. None of them

Ans: a) Allahabad (Sringaverapura near Allahabad)

9. NGO stands for

  1. Non-Governmental Organisation
  2. National Government Organisation
  3. Nation Governmental Organisation
  4. Non-Government Organisation

Ans: a) Non-Governmental Organisation

10. where did the Narmada River situated?

  1. Allahabad
  2. Gujrat
  3. Delhi
  4. None of them

Ans: b) Gujrat

11. which dam was built over the Narmada River?

  1. Sardar Sarovar Dam
  2. Tehri dam
  3. Hirakud Dam
  4. Sutluj dam

Ans: a) Sardar Sarovar dam

12. where did the flood come in 2006?

  1. Maharashtra
  2. Gujrat
  3. Both of them
  4. None

Ans: c) Both of them

13. when did the flood come into Maharashtra and Gujrat?

  1. In 2006
  2. In 2005
  3. In 1995
  4. In 2000

Ans: a) in 2006

14. what is the average rainfall of west Bengal?

  1. 150cm to 200cm                  
  2. 100cm to 250cm
  3. 100cm to 200cm
  4. 150cm to 250cm

Ans: d) 150cm to 250cm

15. what was the amount of rainfall in Rajasthan?

  1. Below 50cm
  2. Below 100cm
  3. Below 40cm
  4. Below 70cm

Ans: a) below 50cm

16. Which is the first state in India that has made rainwater harvesting compulsory?

  1. Gujrat
  2. Allahabad
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Tamil Nadu

Ans: d) Tamil Nadu

17. in which river Bhakra Nangal is constructed?

  1. Mahanadi
  2. Satluj
  3. Ganga
  4. None of them

Ans: b) Satluj

18. who uses a 200year old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes?

  1. Meghalaya
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Gujrat
  4. Rajasthan

Ans: a) Meghalaya

19. which state is concerned with Tehri Dam Andolan?

  1. West Bengal
  2. Uttarakhand
  3. Uttar Pradesh
  4. Meghalaya

Ans: b) Uttarakhand

Short answer type question

1. what is a hydrological cycle?

Ans: freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves within the hydrological cycle ensuring that water is a renewable resource.

2. what comes to your mind after hearing shortage of water?

Ans: The moment we speak of water shortages, we immediately associate it with regions having low rainfall or those that are drought prone. We instantaneously visualise the deserts of Rajasthan and women balancing many ‘matkas’ (earthen pots) used for collecting and storing water and traveling long distances to get water.

3. what is the cause of water scarcity?

Ans: water scarcity is caused by over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.

4. how water is polluted?

Ans: there has been a growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people, much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture, thus, making it hazardous for human use.

5. Why did Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim the dams as the ‘temples of modern India’?

The reason is that it would integrate the development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialisation and growth of the urban economy.

6. write some river project names?

Ans: The Sutlej-Beas river basin,

The Bhakra – Nangal project water is being used both for hydel power production and irrigation.

The Hirakund project in the Mahanadi basin integrates the conservation of water with flood control.

7. What is Palar Pani?

Ans: Rainwater, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water.

8. what is the process of rainwater harvesting?

Ans: Rainwater harvesting is the process to conserve rainwater by collecting, storing, conveying, and purifying rainwater that runs off from rooftops, parks, roads, open grounds, etc. for later use by humans, animals, and irrigation.

9. why did people develop techniques to harvest water?

Ans: People develop different techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water

and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs.

10. what are the objective of dams?

Ans: Today’s dams are built for multipurpose like

  • Irrigation
  • Electricity generation
  • Water supply for domestic and commercial purposes.
  • Floods controls
  • Recreation
  • Inland navigation
  • Fish breeding

Long answer type question

1. explain ” water scarcity may be an outcome of a large and growing population”.

Ans: water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water, and unequal access to it. A large population requires more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food. Hence, to facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the largest consumer of water. own wells and tube-wells of farms for irrigation to increase their produce. it may lead to falling groundwater levels, adversely affecting water availability and food security of the people.

2. how did industries use water?

Ans: Today, large industrial houses are as commonplace as the industrial units of many MNCs (Multinational Corporations). The ever-increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power. Today, in India hydroelectric power contributes approximately 22 percent of the total electricity produced. Moreover, multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles has not only added to water and energy requirements but has further aggravated the problem.

3. what is J.J.M.?

Ans: JJM stands for Jal Jeevan Mission. The Indian Government announced Jal Jeevan Mission To improve the quality of life in rural areas.

The main aim of the Jal Jeevan Mission is to enable every rural household to get an assured supply of portable piped water at a service level of 55 liters per capita per day on a regular basis.

4. what is the roles of dam ?

Or why dams are built?

Ans: A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs, or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake, or impoundment.

“Dam” refers to the reservoir rather than the structure.

Most dams have a section called a spillway or weir over which or through which it is intended that water will flow either intermittently or continuously.

Traditionally dams were built for conserving and managing river water and rainwater.

Today’s dams are built for multipurpose like

  • Irrigation
  • Electricity generation
  • Water supply for domestic and commercial purposes.
  • Floods controls
  • Recreation
  • Inland navigation
  • Fish breeding

4. what is Narmada Bachao Andolan? Explain.

Ans: Save Narmada Movement was led by the Non-Government Organisation and the tribal people farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar dam.

The main cause of this movement was the displacement of local tribal communities. Local people often had to give up their land and livelihood, they have no longer access to resources. The local people are not benefiting from this dam project so, they protest against the dam construction.

5. what are the techniques people use for water harvesting?

Ans: People develop different techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water

and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs.

There are some techniques:-

  • In hill and mountainous regions, people-built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ of the Western Himalayas for agriculture.
  • Rooftop rainwater harvesting’ was commonly practiced to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan.
  • In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields.
  • In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain-fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan, In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi, and Barmer,.
  • The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.

6. explain Bamboo Drip Irrigation System.

Ans: In Meghalaya, a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes, is prevalent. About 18-20 litres of water enters the bamboo pipe system, gets transported over hundreds of metres, and finally reduces to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant.

Steps:

Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower reaches by gravity.

The channel sections, made of bamboo, divert water to the plant site where it is distributed into branches, again made and laid out with different forms of bamboo pipes. The flow of water into the pipes is controlled by manipulating the pipe positions.

if the pipes pass a road, they are taken high above the land.

Reduced channel sections and diversion units are used at the last stage of water application. The last channel section enables water to be dropped near the roots of the plant.

7. what is the feature of Tankas in Rajasthan?

Ans: The feature of Tankas in Rajasthan:

  • In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water.
  • The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide.
  • The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’.

8. write hydraulic structures construction in ancient India.

Ans: Hydraulic Structures in Ancient India:

  • In the first century B.C., Sringaverapura near Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of the river Ganga.
  • During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built.
  • Evidences of sophisticated irrigation works have also been found in Kalinga, (Odisha), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc.
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