CBSE Class 10 Manufacturing Industry Notes

Introduction of Manufacturing Industry

Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

  • paper is manufactured from wood,
  • sugar from sugarcane,
  • iron and steel from iron ore
  • aluminium from bauxite
  • clothes are manufactured from yarn

People are employed in secondary activities, (secondary Sector) and they manufacture primary materials into finished goods. 

 The workers employed in steel factories, cars, breweries, textile industries, bakeries etc. fall into this category.

The development of manufacturing industries measures the economic strength of a country.

Importance of Manufacturing

  • The manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development.
  • Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture, by the making of heavy tools and machinery which helps in agriculture like tractors.
  • This sector also reduces the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • Industrial development is a precondition for the eradication of unemployment and poverty in our country.
  • It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  • The export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much-needed foreign exchange.
  • Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of a higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.
  • Secondary sector help agriculture by raising its productivity and providing raw materials and selling its products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.
  • In the present-day world of globalisation, our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive.

Contribution of Industry to National Economy

  • Over the last two decades share of the Manufacturing industry is 27% – out of which 10% from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
  • This amount is much lower than in some east Asian countries (25% to 35%).
  • The growth rate in the Manufacturing industry is annually traced at around 7% per annum, and the desired rate is 12%.
  • Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9% to 10%.
  • GDP by sector (FY 2020-21)
    • Agriculture: 16.38%
    • Industry: 29.34%
    • Services: 54.27%
  • (FY 2020-21)
  • The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up with the objective to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.

Industrial Location

  • Industrial locations are complex in nature and influenced by the availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc.
  • It is rarely possible to find all these factors available in one place.
  • Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at a lower cost.
  • Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities. Thus, industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand.
  • Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.
  • Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

Classifications of Industry

  • On the basis of the source of raw materials used:
    • Agro-based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
    • Mineral-based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
  • According to their main role:
    • Basic or key industries are those which supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g., iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
    • Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
  • On the basis of capital investment:
    • A small-scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit. This limit has changed over a period of time.
    • At present, the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore
  • On the basis of ownership:
    • Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
    • Private-sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
    • Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sectors.
    • Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately. Such examples are the sugar industry in Maharashtra and the coir industry in Kerala.
  • Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
    • Heavy industries such as iron and steel
    • Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical goods industries

Agro-based Industries

  • Industries are that are based on agricultural raw materials.
    • Cotton
    • Jute
    • Silk
    • woollen textiles
    • sugar
    • edible oil

Textile Industries

  • The textile industry plays a significant role in industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings.
  • It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value-added products.

Cotton Textiles

  • Ancient India produced cotton textiles with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
  • After the 18th century, power looms came into use. Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England.
  • The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
  • The two world wars were fought in Europe, India was a British colony. There was a demand for cloth in the U.K. hence, they gave a boost to the development of the cotton textile industry.


  • In the early years, the cotton textile industry was grown in the cotton-growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Reasons of Growing

  • Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. contributed towards its localisation.
  • This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
  • The industry by creating demands supports many other industries, such as chemicals and dyes, packaging materials and engineering works.

Reasons to develop spinning and not develop of weaving.

  • While spinning continues to be centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, weaving is highly decentralised to provide scope for incorporating traditional skills and designs of Weaving in cotton, silk, zari, and embroidery, etc.
  • India has world-class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low-quality fabric as it cannot use much of the high-quality yarn produced in the country.

(Spinning includes the process of making thread out of raw fibre. Weaving is the process of taking threads and making them to cloth.)

  • Weaving is done by handloom, power loom and in mills.
  • The handspun khadi provides large-scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.

Gandhi Says

Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay emphasis on spinning yarn and weaving khadi?

Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector looming lower than the power loom and handloom?

Importers of yarn from India

  • India exports yarn to Japan.
  • The U.S.A
  • The U.K.
  • Russia
  • France
  • East-European countries
  • Nepal
  • Singapore
  • Sri Lanka
  • African countries.

Why is it important for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?

  • Suppose that yarn is sold at Rs. 85 per kg. If it is sold as trousers, it fetches Rs 800 per kg. Value is added at every stage from fibre to yarn to fabric and to the garment.

Major points to develop the Cotton Textile

  • Although, we have made a significant increase in the production of good quality long-staple cotton, the need to import is still felt.
  • The power supply is erratic and machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and Processing sectors in particular.
  • Other problems are the low output of labour and stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.

Jute Textiles

  • India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands in second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.
  • Most of the mills are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli River, in a narrow belt.
  • The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1855 at Rishra.
  • After Partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three-fourths (75%) of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan).

Factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin

  • The proximity of the jute-producing areas
  • inexpensive water transport,
  • supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate the movement of raw materials to the mills.
  • abundant water for processing raw jute
  • Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for the export of jute goods.

Challenges faced by the industry

  • Competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
  • However, the internal demand has been on the increase due to the Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
  • To stimulate demand, the products need to be diversified.
  • The main markets are
    • The U.S.A
    • Canada,
    • Ghana,
    • Saudi Arabia,
    • The U.K.
    • Australia.
  • The growing global concern for environment-friendly, biodegradable materials, has once again opened the opportunity for jute products.

Sugar Industry

  • India stands second as a world producer of sugar.
  • The first place in the production of gur and khandsari.
  • The raw material used in this industry is bulky, and in haulage its sucrose content reduces.

Location of Sugar Mills

  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Bihar
  • Maharashtra
  • Karnataka
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Gujarat
  • Punjab
  • Haryana
  • Madhya Pradesh.
  • Sixty per cent of mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • This industry is seasonal in nature so, it is ideally suited to the cooperative sector.

(Cooperative sector industries are owned and managed by a group of people. This sector is operated and owned by the suppliers or producers of raw materials, workers or both.)

  • In recent years, the mills shifted in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra, this is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content.
  • Moreover, the cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Major challenges

  • The seasonal nature of the industry.
  • Old and inefficient methods of production.
  • Transport delay in reaching cane to factories and the need to maximise the use of baggage (remaining part of sugarcane).

Mineral Based Industries

  • Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

Iron and Steel Industry

  • The iron and steel industry are the basic industry since all the other industries
    • Heavy
    • medium
    • light
  • Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction materials, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.

Why are iron ore industries are known as a heavy industries?

  • Iron and steel is a heavy industries because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.

Process of Making Steel

  • Iron ore, coking coal and limestone are required in a ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1.
  • Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel.


  • Mineral’s availability. 
  • Remember that the finished products also need an efficient transport network for their distribution to the markets and consumers.
  • Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.

(Chhotanagpur plateau regions – Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal)

  • These regions have the benefits of the low cost of iron ore, high-grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market.
Image Credit – NCERT
  • India is an important Iron ore producing county in the world yet they export their raw materials instead of consuming because of the following reasons.
    • High Costs and limited the availability of coking coal
    • Low productivity of labour
    • Irregular supply of energy
    • Poor infrastructure  
  • We also import good quality of steel from other countries. This is the reason behind the steel is sufficient to meet our domestic demand.

Analytics of production of Steel.

  • In 2018 with 106.5 million tonnes of crude steel production, India ranked 2nd among the world crude steel producers.
  • It is the largest producer of sponge iron.
  • In 2018 per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 70.9 kg per annum against the world average of 224.5 kg.
  • Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through the Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).
  • In the 1950s China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel.
  • Today, China is the largest producer of steel, and also the world’s largest consumer of steel.
Image Credit – NCERT
Image Credit – NCERT

(Source Ministry of Steel, Government of India)

Aluminum Smelting

  • After steel Aluminium is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
  • It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.  
  • It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.
  • It is a substitute of Steel, Copper, Zinc, and lead.
  • Location of Aluminium smelting plants
    • Odisha
    • West Bengal
    • Kerala
    • Uttar Pradesh
    • Chhattisgarh
    • Maharashtra
    • Tamandu  
  • Process of Manufacturing of Aluminium
  • Bauxite is a raw material used in smelters. Bauxite is a very bulky dark reddish-coloured rock.
  • 4 – 6 tonnes of bauxite + 2 tonnes of alumina = 1 tonne of aluminium.

Chemical Industries

  • The chemical industry in India is fast-growing and diversifying.
  • This industry recorded rapid growth in the inorganic and organic sectors.

Organic Compounds – have carbon atoms; Inorganic Compound – do not have carbon atoms.

  • Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuff), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass,

soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. These industries are widely spread over the country.

  • Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for the manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
  • Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.
  • Basic chemicals undergo processing to further produce other chemicals that are used for
    • Industrial application,
    • Agriculture
    • Directly for consumer markets.

Fertilizer Industry

  • The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of
    • nitrogenous fertilizers
    • (Mainly urea),
    • phosphatic fertilizers
    • ammonium phosphate (DAP)
  • complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K).
  • The third, i.e., potash is entirely imported
  • as the country does not have any reserves
  • of commercially usable potash or potassium
  • compounds in any form.

Cement Industry

  • Cement is essential for construction activities such as
    • building houses
    • factories
    • bridges roads
    • airports
    • dams

and for other commercial establishments.

  • This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like
    • Limestone
    • Silica
    • gypsum.
    • Coal
    • electric power
    • rail transportation
  • The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
  • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
  • This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export.
  • Markets are
    • East Asia
    • Middle East
    • Africa and
    • South Asia

Automobile Industry

  • Automobiles provide vehicles for quick transport of good services and passengers.
    • Trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres.
  • Vehicles in the market led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, and two and three-wheelers.
  • The industry is located around
    • Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  • The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television,
  • telephones, cellular telecom, telephone, exchange, radars, computers and much other equipment required by the telecommunication industry.
  • Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
  • Other important centres for electronic goods are
    • Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
  • The major industry concentration is at
    • Bengaluru, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune.
  • A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation.
  • The continuing growth in hardware and software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

Industrial Pollution and Environment Degradation

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Thermal Pollution
  • Noise Pollution

Air Pollution

  • Air Pollution is caused by the presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
  • Airborne particulate materials contain both solid (dust) and liquid (spray, mist, smoke) particles.
  • Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and the burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms.
  • Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects.
  • Are you aware of the Bhopal Gas tragedy that occurred? Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.

Water Pollution

  • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers.
  • The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts
  • heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc. into the water bodies.
  • Fly ash, phosphogypsum (used in making Fertilizers) and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.

Thermal Pollution

  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, and nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
  • Soil and water pollution are closely related.
  • Dumping of wastes especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging,

salts and garbage render the soil useless.

  • Rainwater percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.

Noise Pollution

  • Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.
  • Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.
  • Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise.

Control of Environment Degradation

  • Every litre of wastewater discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of fresh water.
  • Some suggestions are
  • (i) minimising the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages
  • (ii) harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
  • (iii) treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds. Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases
    • (a) Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
    • (b) Secondary treatment by biological process
    • (c) Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves the recycling of wastewater.
  • Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry where there is a threat to groundwater resources also needs to be regulated legally. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories. Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers. Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.

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