CBSE 10 Manufacturing Industry Questions and Answers

Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?

(a) Aluminium

(b) Cement

(c) Plastic

(d) Automobile

Ans: (b) Cement

(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steels for the public sector plants?

(a) HAIL

(b) SAIL

(c) TATA Steel

(d) MNCC

Ans: (b) SAIL

(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?

(a) Aluminium Smelting

(b) Cement

(c) Paper

(d) Steel

Ans: (a) Aluminium Smelting

(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computers, etc?

(a) Steel

(b) Electronic

(c) Aluminium Smelting

(d) Information Technology

Ans: (a) Steel

Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.

(i) What is manufacturing?

Ans: The production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. Like: paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore, and aluminium from bauxite.

(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.

Ans: Three physical factors for the location of industry are:

  • Availability of raw materials.
  • Closeness to market.
  • Availability of power.
  • Transportation system.

(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.

Ans: Three human factors for the location of an industry are the following:

  • Labour
  • Capital
  • Closeness to cities

(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.

Ans: Basic industries are the industries that supply their product or raw materials to manufacture other goods.

For example – iron and steel industries provide iron and steel to other industries as raw materials.

(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?

Ans: Important raw materials used in the manufacture of cement are the following:

  • Limestone
  • Silica
  • Alumina
  • Gypsum

Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.

(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in production capacity?

Ans: Differences between integrated steel plants and mini steel plants:

Integrated steel plantsMini steel plants
Integrated steel plants are large and handle everything in one complex – from putting together raw materials to steel making, rolling, and shaping.  Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, and use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

The following problems are faced by the steel industry:

  • High cost and limited availability of coking coal
  • Lower productivity of labor
  • Irregular supply of energy
  • Poor infrastructure

Recent developments such as liberalisation and foreign direct investment (FDI) have given a boost to the industry with the efforts of private entrepreneurs.

(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?

Ans: Industries have increased pollution and degraded the environment. Industries create four types of pollution as mentioned below:

  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Land pollution
  • Noise pollution

Air pollution: Air pollution is caused by a high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and airborne particulate matter.

Water pollution: Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into water bodies. Paper, refineries, and tanneries are the main culprits.

Land pollution: Soil and water pollution are closely related. The dumping of waste makes the soil useless for agricultural activities. The pollutants then reach the groundwater through the soil and contaminate it.

Noise pollution: Noise pollution is caused by industrial machinery and construction activities.

(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?

Ans: The steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry:

  • Adopting the latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment to improve energy efficiency.
  • Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smokestacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, and inertial separators.
  • Using silencers for noise-generating equipment.
  • Minimising water usage by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
  • Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
  • Treat hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
  • Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases:

(a) Primary treatment by mechanical means, involves screening, grinding, flocculation, and sedimentation.

(b) Secondary treatment by biological process

(c) Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical, and physical processes. This involves the recycling of wastewater.


Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word is hinted at in brackets.

(i) Used to drive machinery(5) Power
(ii) People who work in a factory(6) Worker
(iii) Where the product is sold(6) Market
(iv) A person who sells goods(8) Retailer
(v) Thing produced(7) Product
(vi) To make or produce(11) Manufacture
(vii) Land, Water, and Air degraded(9) Pollution


 Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.


1 . Textiles, sugar, vegetable oil and plantation industries deriving raw materials from agriculture are called…


2 . The basic raw material for sugar industry. (sugarcane)

3 . This fibre is also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’. (jute)

4 . Iron-ore, coking coal, and limestone are the chief raw materials of this industry. (iron steel)

5 . A public sector steel plant located in Chhattisgarh. (Bhilai)

6 . Railway diesel engines are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh at this place. (Varanasi)

Additional question and answer

Multiple choice question

1. how did we measure the economic strength of a country?

  • the development of manufacturing industries
  • the production of manufacturing industries
  • the process of manufacturing industries

Ans: a) the development of manufacturing industries

2. whom did we consider the backbone of development?

  1. Production sector
  2. Corporate sector
  3. Manufacturing sector

 Ans: c) Manufacturing sector

3. manufacturing industries falls in __________

  1. Primary sector
  2. Secondary sector
  3. Tertiary sector

Ans: b) Secondary sector

4. export of manufacturing goods expands___________

  1. Trade, commerce and foreign exchange
  2. Production, manufacture
  3. Commerce, production

Ans: a) Trade, commerce and foreign exchange

5. which sector is boosted by the agro-industries in India?

  1. Import
  2. Production
  3. Agriculture

Ans: a) Agriculture

6. what is the GDP rate of agriculture sector (FY 2020-21)?

  1. Industry: 29.34%
  2. Services: 54.27%
  3. Agriculture: 16.38%

Ans: c) Agriculture: 16.38%

7. what is the GDP rate of industry sector (FY 2020-21)?

  1. Industry: 29.34%
  2. Services: 54.27%
  3. Agriculture: 16.38%

Ans: a) Industry: 29.34%

8. what is the GDP rate of service sector (FY2020-21)?

  1. Industry: 29.34%
  2. Services: 54.27%
  3. Agriculture: 16.38%

Ans: b) Service: 54.27%

9. what is the full form of NMCC?

  • National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council
  • National Manufacture Competitive Council
  • National Manufactured Competitive Council

Ans: a) National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council

10.  Agro-industry are rising in India by

  1. Increasing Export
  2. Increasing production
  3. Decreasing production

Ans: b) increasing production

11. manufacturing industries can be classified into

  1. Five ways
  2. Six ways
  3. Four ways

Ans: a) five ways

12. which one is agricultural raw materials?

  1. Cotton
  2. Steel

Ans: a) cotton

13. which industry is self-reliant and complete the value chain?

  1. Iron Industries
  2. Cotton textiles
  3. Textile industries

Ans: c) Textile industries

14. the first successful textile mill was established in

  1. Mumbai in 1854
  2. Gujrat in 1854
  3. Maharashtra in 1854

Ans: a) Maharashtra in 1854

15. India export yarn to

  1. England
  2. Japan
  3. France

Ans: b) Japan

16. The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in ________ at Rishra.

  1. 1855
  2. 1850
  3. 1853

Ans: a) 1855

17. India take first place in the production of

  1. Jute and cotton
  2. Iron and steel
  3. gur and khandsari

Ans: c) gur and khandsari

18. India stands second as a world producer of

  1. Sugar
  2. Cotton
  3. Jute

Ans: a) Sugar

19. __________has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.

  1. Jharkhand plateau regions
  2. West Bengal plateau regions
  3. Chhotanagpur plateau regions

Ans: c) Chhotanagpur plateau region

20. Chhotanagpur plature regions contain

  1. Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal
  2. Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha
  3. Odisha, west Bengal and Bihar

Ans: a) Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal

21. India ranked___ position in world crude steel producers.

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3

Ans: b) 2

22. when did China and steel produce same quality of steel?

  1. 1950
  2. 1940
  3. 1960

Ans: a) 1950

23. what is full form of SAIL?

  1. Steel Authority of India Ltd.
  2. Smelting autonomy of Indian Ltd.
  3. Steel autonomy of Indian Ltd.

Ans: a) Steel Authority of India Ltd.

24. where and when the first cement plant was set up?

  1. In Gujrat in 1901
  2. in Chennai in 1904
  3. in Maharashtra in 1901

Ans: b) in Chennai in 1904

25. EMS stand for_____

  1. Environment Management System
  2. Economy Management System
  3. Environment Manage System 

Ans: a) Environment Management System

Short question and answer

1. what is manufacturing?

Ans: The production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

2. where should industries be located?

Ans: Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are influenced by the availability of raw materials, labour, capital, power and market, etc.

3. what is agglomeration economies?

Ans: Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

4. how can cotton textile develop?

 Ans: Major points to develop the Cotton Textile

  • Although, we have made a significant increase in the production of good quality long-staple cotton, the need to import is still felt.
  • The power supply is erratic and machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and Processing sectors in particular.
  • Other problems are the low output of labour and stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.

5. which kind of challenges face the industries?

Ans: Challenges faced by the industry

  • Competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
  • However, the internal demand has been on the increase due to the Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
  • To stimulate demand, the products need to be diversified.

6. what is Mineral Based Industries?

Ans: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

7. what are the process of making steel?

Ans: Process of Making Steel

  • Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1.
  • Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel.

8. Describe aluminium smelting?

Ans: After steel, Aluminium is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.

  • It is light, resistance to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it mixed with other metals. 
  • It is used to manufacture aircrafts, utensils and wires.
  • It is substitute of Steel, Copper, Zinc, and lead.

Formula: 4 – 6 tonnes of bauxite + 2 tonnes of alumina = 1 tonne of aluminium.

9. what is Bauxite?

Ans: Bauxite is a raw material used to in smelters. Bauxite is very bulky dark reddish coloured rock.

10. what are the differences of organic and inorganic compound?

Ans: Organic Compound – have carbon atoms;

Inorganic Compound – do not have carbon atoms.

11. what is automobile industries?

Ans: Automobile Industry

  • Automobiles provide vehicle for quick transport of good services and passengers.
    • Trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres.
  • Vehicles in the market, led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three-wheelers.

12. how many types of pollution and name them?

Ans: there are four types of pollution

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Thermal Pollution
  • Noise Pollution

13. what are the cause of air pollution?

Ans: Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

14. what are the cause of water pollution?

Ans: Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers.

15. what are the cause of thermal pollution?

Ans: thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.

16. what are the cause of noise pollution?

Ans: Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.

Like Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise.

Long type question and answer

1. what is the important of manufacturing sector?

Ans: Importance of Manufacturing Sectors.

  • Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development.
  • Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture, by the making of heavy tools and machineries which helps in agriculture like, tractor.
  • This sector also reduces the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.
  • It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  • Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
  • Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.
  • Secondary sector help to agriculture by raising its productivity and provide raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.
  • In the present-day world of globalisation, our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive.

2. what are the contribution of industry toward National economy?

Ans: Contribution of Industry to National Economy

  • Over last two decades share of Manufacturing industry is 27% – out of which 10% from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
  • This amount is much lower than some east Asian countries (25% to 35%).
  • The growth rate in Manufacturing industry is annually traced around 7% per annum, and desire rate is 12%.
  • Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9% to 10%.
  • GDP by sector (FY 2020-21)        
    • Agriculture: 16.38%
    • Industry: 29.34%
    • Services: 54.27%

3. how was the condition of industry location in the pre-independence period?

Ans: In the pre-Independence period, most manufacturing units were located in places from the point of view of overseas trade such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc. Consequently, there emerged certain pockets of industrially developed urban centres surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.  

4. in how many ways can be industries classified? Explain.

Ans: Classifications of Industry

  • On the basis of source of raw materials used:
    • Agro based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
    • Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
  • According to their main role:
    • Basic or key industries are those which supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g., iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
    • Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
  • On the basis of capital investment:
    • A small-scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit. This limit has changed over a period of time.
    • At present the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore
  • On the basis of ownership:
    • Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
    • Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
    • Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector.
    • Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately. Such examples are the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.
  • Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
    • Heavy industries such as iron and steel
    • Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical goods industries

5. “cotton industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers.” Explain.

Ans: Cotton Textiles

  • In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
  • After the 18th century, power-looms came into use. Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England.
  • The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
  • The two world wars were fought in Europe, India was a British colony. There was a demand for cloth in the U.K. hence, they gave a boost to the development of the cotton textile industry.

Reasons of Growing

  • Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. contributed towards its localisation.
  • This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
  • The industry by creating demands supports many other industries, such as chemicals and dyes, packaging materials and engineering works.

6. why India is not developing weaving?

Ans: Reasons to develop spinning and not develop of weaving.

  • While spinning continues to be centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, weaving is highly decentralised to provide scope for incorporating traditional skills and designs of Weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, etc.
  • India has world-class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low-quality fabric as it cannot use much of the high-quality yarn produced in the country.

(Spinning includes the process of making thread out of raw fibre. Weaving is the process of taking threads and making them to cloth.)

  • Weaving is done by handloom, power loom and in mills.
  • The handspun khadi provides large scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.

7. which factors influences jute textiles to locate in Hugli basin?

Ans: Factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin

  • Proximity of the jute producing areas
  • inexpensive water transport,
  • supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills.
  • abundant water for processing raw jute
  • Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for the export of jute goods.

8. what is chemical industries? And state the differences between inorganic and organic chemical.

Ans: Chemical Industries

  • The chemical industry in India is fast growing and diversifying.
  • This industry recorded rapid growth in inorganic and organic sectors.

Organic Compound – have carbon atoms; Inorganic Compound – do not have carbon atoms.

  • Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass,

soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. These industries are widely spread over the country.

  • Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
  • Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.

9. describe Information Technology and Electronics Industry.

Ans: Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  • The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television,
  • telephones, cellular telecom, telephone, exchange, radars, computers and many other equipment’s required by the telecommunication industry.
  • Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
  • Other important centres for electronic goods are
    • Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
  • The major industry concentration is at
    • Bengaluru, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune.
  • A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation.
  • The continuing growth in hardware and software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

10. describe any two pollutions?

Ans: There are four types of pollution.

Thermal Pollution

  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
  • Soil and water pollution are closely related.
  • Dumping of wastes especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging,

salts and garbage render the soil useless.

  • Rainwater percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.

Noise Pollution

  • Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.
  • Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.

Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise.

11. what are the ways of saving environment by NTPC?

Ans: this has been possible through-

(a) Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.

(b) Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.

(c) Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.

(d) Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.

(e) Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for all its power stations.

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