Chapter 4 Agriculture Questions and Answers

Exercise Questions and Answers

1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?

(a) Shifting Agriculture

(b) Plantation Agriculture

(c) Horticulture

(d) Intensive Agriculture

Ans: (b) Plantation Agriculture

(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?

(a) Rice

(c) Millets

(b) Gram

(d) Cotton

Ans: (b) Gram

(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?

(a) Pulses

(c) Millets

(b) Jawar

(d) Sesamum

Ans: (a) Pulses

(iv) Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop?

(a) Maximum support price

(b) Minimum support price

(c) Moderate support price

(d) Influential support price

Ans: (b) minimum support price

2. Answer the following questions in 30 words.

(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.

Ans: The important beverage crop is Tea. The geographical conditions required for the growth of Tea:

  • The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
  • Tea bushes require a warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
  • Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.
  • Tea is processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness.

(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.

Ans: Rice is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India. Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas, and the deltaic regions.

(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programs introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.

Ans: The various institutional reform programs introduced by the government for the benefit of farmers are – The minimum Support Price policy, provision for crop insurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilizers, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme.


(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?

Ans: A declining area of land under cultivation coupled with an increasing population can lead to serious foodgrain shortages. This would in turn increase imports of foodgrains, thereby causing the economy to reel under huge debts. Consequences of reduction of agricultural land:

(i) India will turn into a food deficit from a food surplus country.

(ii) India will face a shortage of raw materials for its agriculture-based industries.

(iii) The poor farmers will become poorer and it will also lead to a sharp rise in prices of the agricultural items.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.

Ans: Considering the importance of agriculture in India, the Government of India has made concerted efforts to increase agricultural production.

  • Establishment of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast, etc. are given priority for improving Indian agriculture.
  • Food security policy has enabled the poor to have access to food. The policy focuses on growth in agriculture production and fixing the support price for procurement of wheat and rice, to maintain their stocks. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) is responsible for procuring and stocking food grains, whereas distribution is ensured by the public distribution system (PDS). The FCI procures food grains from the farmers at the government-announced minimum support price (MSP).
  • The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) are some of the strategies initiated to increase agricultural production.

(ii) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.

Ans: The impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture has been felt since colonial times. Raw cotton and spices were important export items from India. In 1917, Indian farmers revolted in Champaran against being forced to grow indigo in place of foodgrains, in order to supply dye to Britain’s flourishing textile industry. Thus, globalisation has had its boons and banes on Indian agriculture.

Post-liberalisation, Indian farmers face new challenges in the form of competition from highly subsidised agriculture of developed nations. This prompts the need for making Indian agriculture successful and profitable by improving the conditions of small and marginal farmers, countering the negative effects of the Green Revolution, developing and promoting organic farming, and diversifying cropping patterns from cereals to high-value crops.

(iii) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.

Ans: Rice is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. It is a Kharif crop that requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In areas with less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas, and the deltaic regions. Developing a dense network of canal irrigation and tube-wells has made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Rajasthan.

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1. The two staple food crops of India. (RICE, WHEAT)

2. This is the summer cropping season in India. (KHARIF)

3. Pulses like arhar, moong, gram, and urad contain… (PROTEIN)

4. It is a coarse grain. (JOWAR)

5. The two important beverages in India are… (COFFEE, TEA)

6. One of the four major fibers grown on black soils. (COTTON)

Additional Questions and Answers

A. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture is known as ‘Milpa’

a) Mexico

b) Central America

c) both a & b

d) none of them

Ans: (c) both a & b

2. India is an ————- country.

a) agriculture

b) industrial

c) both a& b

d) none of them

Ans: (a) Agriculture

3) India has three cropping seasons —

a) Rabi,

b) Kharif

c) Zaid

d) all of them

Ans: All of them

4. wheat requires———-

a) requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall

b) requires a cool growing season

c) bright sunshine at the time of ripening

d) all of them

Ans: (d) all of them

5. Sugarcane requires-

a) It grows well in a hot and humid climate

b) needs a temperature of 21°C to 27°C

c) an annual rainfall between 75cm. and 100cm.

d) all of them

Ans: (d) all of them

6. Groundnut is

a) Kharif crop

b) rabi crop

c) Zaid crop

d) all of them

Ans: (a) Kharif crop

7. Match the column

Column AColumn B
Fiber cropsA. Equatorial crop (2)
RubberB. Jute, cotton (1)
A backbone of the Indian economyC. Rice (5)
Horticulture cropsD. Agriculture (3)
Commercial cropsE. Plantation agriculture (6)
Tea cultivationF. Fruits and vegetables (4)

B. Short type answer type questions

Q1. How many types of farming?

Ans: There are three types of farming.

  1. Primitive Subsistence Farming
  2. Intensive Subsistence Farming
  3. Commercial Farming

Q2. what is a ‘slash and burn”?

Ans: Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their families. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. This type of shifting allows Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes; land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilizers or other modern inputs. It is known by different names in different parts of the country. Like – The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central America, ‘Conuco’ in Venezuela, etc.

Q3. Describe rabi crops.

Ans: Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. Though, these crops are grown in large parts of India.

Q4. what are Kharif crops?

Ans: Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October. Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut, and soybean.

Q5. what is Zaid season?

Ans: In between the rabi and the Kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season. Some of the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables, and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes almost a year to grow.

Q6.which are the major crops in India?

Ans: Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton, and jute, etc

Q7. Describe the geographical condition of the wheat crop.

Ans: Wheat is the second most important cereal crop. It is the main food crop, in the northern and north-western parts of the country. This rabi crop requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall. There are two important wheat-growing zones in the country – the Ganga-Satluj plains in the northwest and the black soil region of the Deccan. The major wheat-producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and parts of Madhya Pradesh.

Q8. what are millets?

Ans: Jowar, bajra, and ragi are the important millets grown in India. These are known as coarse grains; they are high in nutritional value.

Q9.what is the geographical conditions of the maze?

Ans: Maze is a crop that is used both as food and fodder. It is a Kharif crop that requires a temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil. In some states like Bihar is grown in the rabi season.

Q10. Describe pulses.

Ans: India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world. These are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet. Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions. Major pulses that are grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.

Q11.Describe any two types of non-food crops?

Ans: Rubber: It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas. It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and temperature above 25°C.

Cotton: India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant. Cotton is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry. In 2008 India was the second largest producer of cotton after China.

Q12. Described any two types of food crops other than grains.

Ans: Sugarcane: It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. It grows well in hot and humid climates with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall between 75cm. and 100cm. Irrigation is required in regions of low rainfall.

Tea: Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture. It is also a beverage crop introduced in India initiative by the British. Today, most of the tea plantations are owned by Indians. The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.

Q13. what is a law reform?

Ans: ‘Land reform’ was the main focus of our First Five Year Plan. The right of inheritance had already led to the fragmentation of land holdings necessitating consolidation of holdings. The laws of land reforms were enacted but the laws of implementation were lacking or lukewarm. The Government of India embarked upon introducing agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s.

C. Long answer type questions

Q14. Describe types of farming.

Ans: there are three types of farming.

Primitive Subsistence Farming

  • This type of farming is still practiced in a few regions of India.
  • Primitive subsistence agriculture is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/community labour.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • This type of farming is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land.
  • It is labour-intensive farming.

Commercial Farming

  • The main characteristic of commercial farming
  • uses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.

Q15. What is food security in India?

Ans: India’s food security policy has a primary objective to ensure the availability of food grains to the common people at an affordable price. It has enabled the poor to have access to food. The policy focuses on growth in agriculture production and fixing the support price for procurement of wheat and rice, to maintain their stocks. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) is responsible for procuring and stocking food grains, whereas distribution is ensured by the public distribution system (PDS). The FCI procures food grains from the farmers at the government-announced minimum support price (MSP).

Q16. Discuss reform programs introduced by the government in the favour of farmers.

Ans:  government introduces some programs such as

Green revolution: The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve a lot of Indian agriculture. But, this too led to the concentration of development in a few selected areas.

Kissan credit card (KCC): Kissan Credit Card (KCC), and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers. Moreover, special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television. The government also announces minimum support prices, and remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

Land reform: ‘Land reform’ was the main focus of our First Five Year Plan. The right of inheritance had already led to the fragmentation of land holdings necessitating consolidation of holdings. The laws of land reforms were enacted but the laws of implementation were lacking or lukewarm.

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