Chapter 4 Agriculture CBSE 10 Social Studies Notes

Chapter 4 – Agriculture Notes

Agriculture Introduction

  • India is an agriculturally important country.
  • Two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.
  • Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume.
  • Besides food grains, it also produces raw materials for various industries. Tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported


Agriculture is the main economic activity in India. Due to technological development, environmental changes, and social culture practices, cultivation pattern has changed in India over the year. At present, the following agriculture pattern is followed in the different parts of India.  

  • Primitive Subsistence Farming
  • Intensive Subsistence Farming
  • Commercial Farming

Primitive Subsistence Farming

  • This type of farming pattern is the oldest form of agriculture, but still practiced in a few regions of India.
  • Primitive subsistence agriculture is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao, and digging sticks, and family/community labour.
  • This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil, and suitability of other environmental conditions for the crops grown.
  • It is a β€˜slash and burn’ agriculture. – In slash-and-burn agriculture food grains are collected from the plants and reaming parts of the plant are burned into the field to replenish the fertility of the soil. This is the natural way to increase soil fertility. In this method, soil fertility is low because the farmer does not use fertiliser.
  • Methods – Framers clear a patch of land and produce other food crops to sustain their family lives.

β€˜slash and burn’

  • When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
  • This type of shifting allows Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes.
  • Land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilisers or other modern inputs.
  • It is known by different names in different parts of the country.
Jhummingnorth-eastern states like – Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland.
PamlouManipur, Chhattisgarh, Andaman, and Nicobar Islands.
Bewar’ or β€˜DahiyaMadhya Pradesh
Podu’ or β€˜PendaAndhra Pradesh
Pama Dabi’ or β€˜Koman’ or BringaOdisha
β€˜KumariWestern Ghats,
Valre’ or β€˜WaltreSouth-eastern Rajasthan
KhilHimalayan belt

Jhumming in Other countries.

MilpaMexico and Central America.
MasoleCentral Africa

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • This type of farming is practiced in areas of high population.
  • It is labor-intensive farming.
  • The biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
  • the farmers have to maximize the output from the limited land in the absence of an alternative source of livelihood.

The following states largely practice Intensive subsistence farming – West Bengal, Kerala, and the coastal state of Andhra Pradesh

Commercial Farming

  • The main aim of growing commercial crops is to sell and maximize profit. Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tea, tobacco, Coffee, Rubber, Banana, etc. are the main commercial crops of India.  
  • Commercial farming uses modern inputs, e.g., high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
  • Commercialisation of agricultural products varies from one region to another because of their availability in that region. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Punjab and Haryana, but a subsistence crop in Odisha. Odisha alone produced around 25% of total rice production in India, While Punjab and Haryana are not suitable for rice production. So Odisha sells its rice to Punjab and Haryana and for that reason, rice is commercial farming in Punjab and Haryana.
  • Plantation crops are also known as commercial farming.
  • In this type of farming a single crop is grown on a large area, and capital-intensive inputs are used for farming with the help of migrant laborers.
  • Mostly commercial crops are used as raw materials in big industries.

Cropping Pattern

India has three cropping seasons – rabi, kharif, and zaid.

Crop SeasonSownHarvest Crops
RabiWinter October – DecemberSummer April – JuneWheat, barley, peas, gram, and mustard.
KharifMonsoon between April – MaySeptember – OctoberPaddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar) moong, cotton, jute, groundnut, soyabean, etc.

Zaid Crop

In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season.

Some of the crops produced during β€˜Zaid’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables, and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes almost a year to grow

Differences between Rabi and Kharif Crops?

Rabi CropKharif Crop
These are the crops which are sown at the beginning of the rainy season, e.g., between April and May.They are the crops that are sown at the end of monsoon or at the beginning of winter season, e.g., between September and October.
Kharif crops are known as monsoon crops.Rabi crops are also known as winter crops or spring crops.
Kharif crops depend on the rainfall patterns.Rabi crops are not affected by the rainfall patterns.
Rice, maize, cotton, Jowar, Bajra etc. are Rabi CropWheat, gram, peas, barley etc. are Kharif Crop.
Kharif crops require a lot of water and hot weather to grow.Rabi crops need warm climate for seed germination and cold climate for the growth of crops.
Kharif crop flowering requires shorter day length.Rabi crop flowering requires longer day length.
It has harvesting months from September to October.It has harvesting months from March to April.
North and north-western parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important for the production of wheat and other rabi crops. Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important for the production of Kharif Crop.

Different Types of Food Grains

Riceβ†’ Rice is a staple food crop. (Food that contains a major proportion of people’s diet.)
β†’ It is a Kharif crop. India is the second largest producer of Rice in the world after China.
β†’ Temperature – above 25.
β†’ Rainfall – above 100 cm.
β†’ Area – West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orisha, Assam. 
Wheat→ Wheat is the second most important cereal crop. (Food grains belonging to the grass family and their seeds used as food by humans are called cereal crops.)
β†’ Most important food in the north and north-western parts.
β†’ Season – cool growing seasons and bright sunshine at the time of ripping.
β†’ Rainfall – 50 to 75 cm.
β†’ Zones – (a) Ganga-Sutlej plains in northwest (b) Black soil region of Deccan.
β†’ Area – Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan.
MilletsJowar, Bajra, and Ragi are together called millets.
β†’ Millets are Coarse grains (refer to cereal grains other than wheat and rice or those used primarily for animal feed or brewing.)
β†’ Millet is very high in nutrition.  Ragi is very rich in Iron, calcium, and other micronutrients.  

β†’ Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production.
β†’ It is grown in heavy rainfall areas mostly grown in moist areas which hardly need irrigation.
β†’ Area – Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.  

β†’ Bajra grows on sandy soils and shallow black soil.
β†’ Area – Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Haryana.  

β†’ Ragi crop grows in the dry region.
β†’ Soil – red, black, sandy, loamy, and shallow black soils.
β†’ Area – Karnataka,Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand, and Arunachal Pradesh.
Maize→ Maize is used as both food and fodder. It is a Kharif crop.
β†’ Soil – Alluvial Soil
β†’ Temperature – 21 to 27.
β†’ Reasons for high production – (a) HYV seeds (b) Fertilisers (c) irrigation.
β†’ Area – grows mostly in Bihar in the Rabi season also. Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana.
Pulsesβ†’ Introduction – Pulses consumed as Dal in India are a cheap source of protein.
β†’ India is the largest producer and consumer in the world.
β†’ India is the largest producer (25% of global production), the consumer (27% of world consumption), and the importer (14%) of pulses in the world.Pulses are the major source of protein.
β†’ Pulse crops are cultivated in the Kharif, Rabi, and Zaid seasons of the agricultural year.
β†’ Pulses grow in India – tur (arhar), urad, moong, Masur, peas, and gram.
β†’ Area – Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka.
Food crops other than grains
Sugarcaneβ†’ Sugarcane is a tropical and subtropical crop. It is the main source of sugar, gur, (jaggary), khandsari, and molasses.Climate – Hot and Humid climate.
β†’ Temperature – 21  – 27
β†’ Rainfall – 75 to 100 cm. Irrigation is required in regions of low rainfall.
β†’ Area – Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar Punjab, and Haryana. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil.
Oil seeds→ Most seeds are edible and used as cooking mediums, some seeds are used as raw material for the production of soap, cosmetics, and ointments.
β†’ Main oil seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed, and sunflower.
β†’ Groundnut is a Kharif crop.
β†’ It accounts for half of the major oilseeds produced in India.
β†’ Area – Gujarat was the largest producer of groundnut followed by Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu in 2019–20.  
β†’ Linseed and mustard are rabi crops.
β†’ Sesamum is a Kharif crop in the north and a rabi crop in south India.
β†’ Castor seed is grown both as a rabi and kharif crop.
Tea→ Tea is a beverage crop and plantation agriculture introduced in India by the British, now most of the tea plantations are owned by Indians.
β†’ Climate – Tea plants grow in tropical and subtropical climates. It requires a warm climate and a moist free climate.
β†’ Soil – Deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus, contains organic matter.  
β†’ Labour – Tea is a labor-intensive crop, it requires abundant, cheap, and skilled labor.
β†’ Area – Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh, and Tripura are also tea-producing states in the country.
β†’ In 2018 India was the second largest producer of tea after China.
Coffee→ Indian coffee is known in the world for its good quality.
β†’ Arabica Coffee from India has good demand in the international market.
β†’ The cultivation of coffee is first introduced in the Baba Budan Hills.
β†’ Area – Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Coffee cultivation is also expanding rapidly in the non-traditional areas of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha as well as in the North East states.
Horticulture Crops→ Horticultural crops mean vegetable crops, fruit crops and edible nuts, and nursery crops.
β†’ In 2018 India was the second largest producer of horticulture crops after China.
β†’ Mangoes – Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
β†’ Oranges – Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya).
β†’ Bananas – Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.
β†’ Lichi and Guava – Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
β†’ Pineapples – Meghalaya.
β†’ Grapes – Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Maharashtra.
β†’ Apples, pears, apricots, and walnuts – Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
β†’ India is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal, and potato.
Non-food crops
Rubber→ Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
β†’ Uses – surgical gloves, tires, toys, shoe soles, balloons, mattresses, etc.
β†’ Climate – Moist and Humid Climate
β†’ Rainfall – more than 200 cm.
β†’ Temperature – above 25.
β†’ Area – Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobar Island, and Garo hills of Meghalaya.  
Fibre crops→ Rearing silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.
β†’ Types of fibre – Cotton, Jute, Sambe or Hemp Fibre, Natural Silk.
β†’ Cotton, Jute, Sambe – These kinds of crops are grown in the soil.
β†’ Natural Silk – obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves especially mulberry.
Cotton→ Cotton is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.
β†’ Cotton is a Kharif crop, and it requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
β†’ India was the second-largest producer of cotton after China in 2017.
β†’ Temperature – 20 degree Celsius, 210 frost-free days, and sunshine for growth.
β†’ Rainfall – 60 to 100 cms.
β†’ Soil – Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
β†’ Area – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.
Jute→ Jute is known as the golden fibre.
β†’ Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
β†’ Temperature – High temperature is required during the time of growth.
β†’ Area – West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha, and Meghalaya.
β†’ Uses – gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets, and other artifacts.
β†’ Nylon is replacing jute because of its high cost.

β†’ Shri Ram Chandra Reddy offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 land-less villagers. This act was known as β€˜Bhoodan’.

β†’ Zamindars, owners of many villages offered to distribute some villages among the landless. It was known as Gramdan.

β†’ This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement initiated by Vinoba Bhave is also known as the Blood-less Revolution.

Agriculture Questions and Answers

Related Posts

Share your love

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *