Exercises Questions and Answers
1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
A. its per capita income
B. its average literacy level
C. health status of its people
D. all the above
Ans: D. all the above
2. Which of the following neighbouring Countries has better performance in items of human development than India?
B. Sri Lanka
Ans: B. Srilanks
3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000, and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
A. Rs 7500
B. Rs 3000
C. Rs 2000
D. Rs 6000
Ans: D. Rs. 6000
|Total income of four families = 5000 x 4 = 20000
|Total income of three families = 4000 + 7000 + 3000 = 14000
|Income of the fourth family = 20000-14000 = 6000
|Total income of four families = 5000 x 4 = 20000 Total income of three families = 4000 + 7000 + 3000 = 14000
|Income of the fourth family = 20000-14000 = 6000
4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Ans: The World Bank uses the per capita income to classify different countries. The per capita income is calculated by dividing the total income of the country by the population of the country. For the year 2017, the countries with per capita income of US $12,056 per annum were declared rich countries and the countries with per capita income of US $ 955 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the category of low-middle-income countries because its per capita income in 2012 was just US$ 1530 per annum. The rich countries, excluding countries of the Middle East and certain other small countries, are generally called developed countries.
The limitations of the criterion are:
- 1. Other important factors including literacy rate, infant mortality rate, and healthcare are ignored while classifying the countries.
- 2. Information about the unequal distribution of income is not mentioned by The World Bank.
- 3. The economy of the country cannot determine its development of the country.
5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
Ans: UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) compares countries on the basis of the educational level of people, their health status and per capita income per annum while the criterion used by World Bank is merely that of per capita income or average income for measuring development.
In short, the Human Development criterion is used by UNDP whereas only economic development by the World Bank.
6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Ans: Different countries have different populations so calculating the average helps in getting an estimated answer which can be used to compare different things at different levels. There are limitations in calculating averages because we cannot know the difference in the income of the people and the unfair distribution of income in a country or state.
For example, the infant mortality rate of a country does not differentiate between the male and female infants born in that country. Such an average tells us nothing about whether the number of children dying before the age of one is mostly boys or girls.
7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans: Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. This is true because the literacy rate, infant mortality rate, healthcare facilities, etc are better in Kerala in comparison to Maharashtra. The per capita income is only calculated by calculating the average income of the state, irrespective of any other factor.
8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
Ans: The present sources of energy used by people in India include firewood, coal, petroleum, crude oil, and natural gas. The other possibilities fifty years from now can be using solar energy and wind energy as a source for various energy forms. This is because the current usage of sources of energy may result in the loss of these resources for future generations.
9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Ans: Sustainable development refers to using natural resources in a manner so that they can be used by the present and future generations. The issue of sustainability is important for development because if natural resources are not used carefully, they may not be available for future generations. The depletion of resources of a country may ultimately result in a lack of development of the country.
10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
Ans: Development not just depends on the economic factors of a country but is also dependent on resources that are available for the people of a country to use. The statement “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person” is completely relevant in terms of the development of a country because natural resources are non-renewable resources and it is the responsibility of the people to use them only to meet their needs and not used wisely now, future generations may not be able to use them for their needs, which will result in the downfall of the development of a country.
11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Ans: A few examples of environmental degradation that we can observe around us are
- Pollution caused by vehicles and the excess use of fuels in vehicles
- Industrial waste collected in residential areas and discarded into water bodies
- Soil erosion
The increased pollution in the environment has resulted in global warming, the melting of glaciers, and worsening atmospheric conditions.
12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Ans: Table 1.6
(i) Per Capita Income in US$: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Myanmar
(ii) Life Expectancy at birth: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Myanmar
(iii) Literacy Rate for 15+ yrs population: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Bangladesh
(iv) Gross Enrolment Ratio for three levels: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Pakistan
(v) HDI Rank in the world: Top country – Sri Lanka; Bottom country – Nepal
13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around 40 percent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
Ans: (i) The nutritional level of people in Kerala is higher than the nutritional level of people in Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) One-fifth of the population in the country is undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country because of the following reasons:
- The disparity in the distribution of food grains by the Public Distribution System (PDS).
- Nutritious food cannot be afforded by the poor population in the country.
- Educational backwardness of people results in unemployment because of which people cannot afford the basic necessity of food.
- There is no proper distribution of ration at the fixed-price stores.
Additional Questions and answers
A. Very Short Answer Questions (1 mark)
1. Define the term National Income?
Ans: National income is defined as the total value of all final goods and services produced within a country plus net income from transactions like (export and import) with other countries.
2. Define GDP.
Ans: GDP or Gross Domestic Product is the total value of all final goods and services produced during a particular year in a country.
3. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries?
Ans: The World Bank uses average income or per capita income as a criterion for classifying different countries.
4. Why is countries’ total income not used to compare them?
Ans: The total income of countries is not used to make comparisons between them, because the population of different countries is different and does not give a clear picture if comparisons are made on this basis.
5. Literacy rate measures the proportion of the literate population in which age group?
Ans: The age group of 7 years and above.
6. Which state of India has the lowest infant mortality rate?
7. What is Human Development Index?
Ans: Human Development Index is a composite index of the achievements of a nation in terms of three important variables, namely—longevity, knowledge, and standard of living, that determine the quality of life.
8. Name the report published by UNDP which compares countries based on the people’s educational levels, health status, and per capita income.
Ans: Human Development Report
9. What term is used to describe the ‘average number of years a person is expected to live at birth’?
Ans: Life Expectancy
10. What is the advantage of per capita income? Mention anyone.
Ans: It helps to compare the development of countries as per capita income tells us whether people in one country are better off than others in a different country.
11. What do final goods and services mean?
Ans: The various production activities in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors produce a large number of goods and services for consumption, and investment is final goods and services.
12. Why is sustainable development essential? Give one reason.
Ans: Sustained development aims at economic development without damaging the environment and at the same time conserving for the future. Resources are to be used in such a way that they are not overexploited.
13. Why is the per capita income of different countries calculated in dollars and not in their own currencies by the World Bank?
Ans: Per capita income of different countries is calculated in dollars and not in their own currencies because the dollar has been the strongest and most stable currency since the end of the 2nd World War and it becomes easy to compare the per capita incomes of various countries when these are converted into a common currency, i.e., US dollar ($).
14. “What may be development for one may not be developed for the other.” Explain with a suitable example.
Ans: Different persons have different notions of development because the life situations of persons are different. For example, the Construction of dams leads to the generation of hydroelectricity, thus development. However, many people have to be displaced from their villages, hence it may not be developed for them.
15. What is meant by the sustainability of development?
Ans: This signifies that the level of economic development of a country should be maintained or sustained for all the years. Development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.
- A. Infant mortality rate
- B. Literacy rate
- C. Net attendance ratio
- D. BMI
A. Infant mortality rate: It indicates the number of children that die before the age of 1 year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.
B. Literacy rate: It measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.
C. Net Attendance ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 6 to 10 attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.
D. BMI stands for Body Mass Index: It is calculated by dividing the weight of a person in kilograms (kgs) by the square of his/her height in meters. It is an indicator of the level of nourishment in adults.
17. Literacy rate measures the proportion of the literate population in which age group?
Ans: The age group of 7 years and above.
B. Short Answer Questions. (3 Marks)
18. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Ans: Total income is not a useful measure for comparison between countries. Since countries have different populations, comparing total income does not tell what an average person is likely to earn. Hence, we use average income, which is the country’s total income divided by the total population.
The defect of the average as a measure is that it does not show the distribution (dispersion) of income between the rich and the poor.
Two countries may have the same average income but in one country almost every family may enjoy more or less the same kind of income, whereas in the other, some may be very rich and others very poor. The disparity between rich and poor is an important feature that the average measure (per capita income) does not consider.
Example: In terms of development, we can take the example of India, where the metro towns are full of high-rise buildings and shopping malls while some villages have not yet been provided with a basic necessity like electricity.
19. What is per capita income? Mention any two limitations of per capita income as an indicator of development.
Ans: The total income of a country divided by its total population gives the Per Capita Income. Money cannot buy all the goods and services that are needed to live well. So income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use. For example, money cannot buy a pollution-free environment or ensure that one gets unadulterated medicines unless one can afford to shift to a community that already has all these things.
20. Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare States. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans: Per capita income is not a useful criterion at all to measure the human development ranking of a state. High per capita income is not the only attribute of a good quality of life. Money cannot buy all the essential things required for a good life. Pollution-free atmosphere to ensure good health, protection from infectious diseases, lowering of mortality rate, promotion of literacy, etc. are essential for a good standard of living. In order to achieve these, joint efforts have to be made by all members of a community, be they rich or poor.
Kerala ranks higher compared to Punjab even with a lower per capita income because—
The mortality rate is lower the literacy rate is higher and the total number of children attending school (Classes I-V) is higher.
21. On the basis of which three indicators of HDI 2004 Sri Lanka have a better rank than India?
Ans: Three indicators of HDI 2004 in which Sri Lanka has a better rank than India:
Per capita income—The per capita income of Sri Lanka in US dollars was 4,390 US dollars while that of India was 3,139 US dollars.
Life expectancy at birth—The life expectancy at birth for Sri Lanka was 74, higher than that of India at 64.
Gross enrolment ratio for three levels—Sri Lanka had a Gross Enrolment ratio of 69 while that of India was 60.
22. ‘Conflicting goals can also be developmental goals. Elaborate with examples.
Ans: All persons do not have the same notion of development or progress. Each one of them seeks different things. They seek things that are most important for them, i.e., that which can fulfill their aspirations or desires. In fact, at times two persons or groups of persons may seek things that are conflicting.
A girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother and he also shares in the household work. Her brother may not like this.
To get more electricity, industrialists may want more dams. But this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced, such as tribals. They might resent this and may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their land.
23. What are common developmental goals? Give any two suitable examples of common developmental goals.
Ans: There are certain goals that are the same or common for all. These are common developmental goals. The developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life. More income or more material goods do not always give us a good quality of life.
There are other aspects such as equal treatment, freedom, security, opportunity to learn, good working conditions, pollution-free atmosphere, job security, and good social life which are very important for a good quality of life. Money or material things that one can buy with it is one factor on which our life depends. But the quality of our life also depends on non-material things, for example, the role of our friends in our life which cannot be measured but mean a lot to us.
24.“Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well” Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer with any three suitable arguments.
Ans: Yes, I agree with the statement because money income and material goods alone are not adequate indicators of a good quality of life. Money cannot buy all the goods and services one needs to live well.
Money cannot buy pollution-free and dean environment with fresh air. It cannot protect us from infectious diseases and guarantee good health for us. Money cannot assure that medicines available in the market are not adulterated.
To live well one needs non-material factors such as equal treatment, freedom, security, equal opportunity to learn, a pollution-free environment, good and safe working conditions, etc.
25. Apart from income, which other six things do people look for as important aspects of our lives?
Ans: High per capita income is not the only attribute of a good quality of life. Money cannot buy all the essential things required for a good life. Pollution-free atmosphere to ensure good health, protection from infectious diseases, lowering of mortality rate, promotion of literacy, job security, good working conditions, etc. are essential for a good standard of living.
26. On what basis the rich and low-income countries have been categorized in the world? What are the limitations of this approach? According to the World Development Report, 2006, India comes in which category? Give a reason for the same.
Ans: The World Bank uses average income or per capita income as a criterion for classifying different countries. Countries with per capita income of? 4,53,000 per annum and above (in the year 2004) are called rich countries and those with a per capita income of? 37,000 or less are called low-income countries (India comes under low-income countries; the per capita income in India is? 28,000 per annum). Those falling between ₹37,000 – ₹4,53,000 are placed in the middle category.
Limitations of this criterion.
While averages are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities. Two countries may have an identical average income, but one country may have an equitable distribution where people are neither very rich nor very poor, while in the other country most citizens are very poor, and very few are extremely rich,
A better income cannot ensure a good quality of life. The criterion set by the World Bank has ignored certain attributes of a good life which do not depend on income or cannot be. bought with money.
Examples are freedom, equal treatment, equal opportunities, a free atmosphere, provision of unadulterated medicines, etc.
27. Why do people look at a mix of goals for development? Explain.
Ans: Though income is one of the most important components of development, there are other important goals that people look at for development—
People also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect.
Women need a safe and secure environment to take up a variety of jobs or to run businesses as entrepreneurs.
People seek a pollution-free environment.
Students seek better education and equal opportunities to learn.
C. Long Answer Questions. (5 Marks)
28. Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because life situations of persons are different.
Ans: The correct explanation is ‘Because life situations of persons are different.’
Developmental goals are different for different categories of people because of their different aspirations. Aspirations are based on their needs. At times people may have conflicting developmental goals also. What may be developed for one may not be developed for another. It may even be destructive for the other.
For example, Industrialists may want the construction of more dams for more electricity, but this may lead to the displacement of tribals who live in those areas and thereby disrupt their lives.
For example, The inhabitants of Nandigram in West Bengal are mainly agriculturists and their aspirations are to see development in the field of agriculture, whereas to some it may appear that industrial advancement is more necessary for national development.
29. What does HDI stand for? Explain the main criteria for measuring HDI according to the UNDP Report of 1990.
Ans: HDI Stands for Human Development Index.
Main criteria for measuring HDI:
HDI published by UNDP compares countries based on the people’s educational levels, health status, and per capita income.
HDI determines the rank of a country by its overall achievement in three areas, i.e., life expectancy, educational level, and per capita income.
Many improvements have been suggested in calculating HDI and many new components have been added to Human Development Report.
Pre-fixing Human to Development has made it clear that what is important in development is what is happening to citizens of a country, i.e., the health and well-being of the people are most important.
30. Explain with examples that there are other important development goals also besides income.
Ans: More income or more material goods do not always give us a good quality of life. There are other aspects such as equal treatment, freedom, security, opportunity to learn, good working conditions, pollution-free atmosphere, job security, and good social life which are very important for a good quality of life.
Money or material things that one can buy with it is one factor on which our life depends. But the quality of our life also depends on non-material things, for example, the role of our friends in our life which cannot be measured but mean a lot to us. Another example is if we get a job in a far-off place, before accepting it we would try to consider many factors apart from income such as facilities for our family, working atmosphere, or opportunity to learn. Similarly, for development, people look at a mix of goals. It is true that if women are engaged in paid work, their dignity increases. However, it is also the case that if there is respect for women there would be more sharing of housework and greater acceptance of women.
The developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.
31. Explain any five fields other than income where development is needed.
Ans: Fields other than income where development is needed:
Education. The government must provide adequate educational facilities in all rural and urban areas. The government must necessarily focus on education for girls so that all girls are able to acquire at least secondary-level schooling. Running proper schools and providing quality education, particularly elementary education, is the duty of the Government.
Health. Basic healthcare facilities are a must for all. Establishment of government hospitals, clinics, and dispensaries, especially in rural areas, to provide subsidized and unadulterated medicines to the poorer sections of society.
Nutrition. An effective Public Distribution System—proper functioning of ration shops and equitable distribution of foodgrains is very essential.
Transportation. A well-developed public transport system makes it easy for the general public to commute.
Electricity. The government must provide electricity and water at reasonable rates to the common man and prevent him from exploitation by private companies.
32. Explain with reasons why the state of Punjab with a very high per capita income has a low literacy rate.
Ans: Per capita income is not a useful criterion at all to measure the human development ranking of a state. High per capita income is not the only attribute of a good quality of life. Money cannot buy all the essential things required for a good life.
This can be seen in the case of Punjab which has a very high per capita income but a low literacy rate. Having money in one’s pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that we need to live well. Money cannot ensure education and literacy. Another reason for the low literacy rate in Punjab could be the lack of free and compulsory educational facilities. The government needs to open more schools and provide other facilities so that all children have a chance to study.
Pollution-free atmosphere to ensure good health, protection from infectious diseases, lowering of mortality rate, promotion of literacy, etc. are essential for a good standard of living. To achieve these, joint efforts have to be made by all members of a community, be they rich or poor.
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