Development CBSE 10 Economics

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Aspects of Development.

  • Different people have different notions of Development goals. The development goals are varying from person to person. 
  • Something may be developed for one may not be developed for the other. It may even be destructive for the other.

Example:  A girl from a rich urban family gets as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to do in life. She is able to pursue her studies abroad.

Economic development can be measured and income is the most common method for measuring development.


  • Income Goal – People desire regular work, better wages, and decent prices for their crops or other products that they produce. In other words, they want more income.
  • Other Goal – Beside Income People also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect for others. They resent discrimination. All these are important goals.
  • Why both are important aspects of development?

Money, or material things that one can buy with it, is one factor on which our life depends. But the quality of our life also depends on non-material things (other goals) mentioned above.

Consider example

  • In the first case – If you get a job in a far-off place, before accepting it you would try to consider many factors, apart from income, such as facilities for your family, working atmosphere, or opportunity to learn.
  • In another case – you geta job that may give you less pay but may offer regular employment that enhances your sense of security.
  • A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.

Hence, people’s developmental goals are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.

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Different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.

Compare different countries or states?

To compare the development of countries, income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.

Some countries are generally called developed and others underdeveloped.

Developed Countries

  • Countries with higher income are called developed countries or rich countries.
  • per capita income of US $ 12,056 (Rs. 8,94,000) per annum. (2017)
  • America, Singapore, Denmark, Ireland

Developing Countries

  • Countries with middle income are called developing countries.
  • per capita income of US $ 1820 (Rs, 1,35,000) per annum. (2017)
  • India

Underdeveloped countries

  • Countries with a lower income is called underdeveloped country.
  • per capita income of US $ 955 (Rs. 70,000) per annum. (2017)
  • Afghanistan, Niger 
per capita income
per capita income

(Average income or per capita income is the country’s total income divided by its total population.)

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Terms Explanation  

  • Per Capita Income: per capita income means the total income of the country divided by its population. Per capita income is used to measure the development of the country.
  • Literacy Rate: literacy rate measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.
  • Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): Infant mortality rate indicates the number of children that die before the age of 0ne year as a proportion of 100 live children born in that particular year.
  • Attendance Ratio: The attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.
  • Life Expectancy: Life Expectancy denotes as the name suggests, the expected average length of life of a person at the time of birth.
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio (GRE):  Gross Enrolment Ratio is used as a statistic to measure the education sector and In the UN its education index determines the number of students enrolled in schools at different grades.
  • Human Development Index (HDI): Human Development Index is a statistical composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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