Exercise Question and Answer
Write in Brief
a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
Ans: The growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement because people began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together. But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experiences were varied, and their notions of freedom were not always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement. But unity did not emerge without conflict.
b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
Ans: The First World War created a new economic and political situation in India:-
- It led to a huge increase in defence expenditures which were financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
- Custom duties were raised and Income tax was introduced.
- There was widespread anger in the rural area due to the forced recruitment of soldiers.
- Crops failed, this resulted in an acute shortage of food.
c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
Ans: Rowlatt Act was introduced in 1919. This act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council, although it was completely opposed by Indian members. It had given the Government enormous powers to repress political activities. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Ans: In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
Ans: The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, the truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
3. Write a newspaper report on:
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre: On 13 April the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. His object, as he declared later, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of Satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
b) The Simon Commission: When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’. All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations. In an effort to win them over, the viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future, and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution. This did not satisfy the Congress leaders.
4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Ans: With the growth of nationalism, the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. There are two images of Bharat Mata one by Abanindranath Tagore, and the second one by another artist. In the first image in 1905, Bharat Mata is an ascetic figure. She has been shown as calm, composed, divine and spiritual. In the second image, Bharat Mata has been standing beside a lion and an elephant. Both are symbols of power and authority. Thus in India, Bharat Mata has acquired differently from an ascetic figure to symbol of power and authority.
On the other hand, the image of Germania was drawn by Philip Veit in 1848. Germania is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism. Thus, there is one similarity between Bharat Mata and Germania that both elements contain of bravery, power, authority, and heroism.
1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Ans: the list of social groups is:
- The workers are members of the Congress party.
- The members of the khilafat committee and supporters of the khilafat cause(or ottoman turkey)
- Middle class of the cities
- Students and teachers from schools and colleges
- Merchants and traders
- The weavers
- The lawyers
- The peasants and the tribals
- Plantation workers
Three social groups, their hopes and struggles:
- Middle Classes in the cities: Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. They responded enthusiastically to calls for non-corporation movements and boycotts. They saw the movement as a way to freedom from foreign domination. For example, the khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth people and poor people could not afford to buy it.
- Peasants and Tribals: Peasants joined the non-corporation movement in many places. The movement was primarily against talukdars and landlords. They understood that they would be redistributed by swaraj. The peasant movement often turned violent and the peasants had to face bullets and police brutality.
- Plantation workers: Plantation workers too joined the movement led by Gandhiji. They had their own understanding of the notion of swaraj. For them, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi had found salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Some of these were of general interest. The others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The idea was to make the demands wide ranging so that all classes within Indian society could identify with term and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. Salt was something consumed by the rich and poor alike, and was one the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, Mahatma Gandhi declared, revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
Mahatma started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram Sabarmati to Gujarati coastal town Dandi. The volunteers walked 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy British. On 6 April reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater.
Thousands in different parts of the country broke salt law, manufactured salt, and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. As the movement spread, the foreign cloth was boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused pay revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned, and forest people violated forest laws. They reserved forest to collect wood and graze cattle.
3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Ans: Imagining a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement:
- I saw that women were not lagging behind men in this movement. They are like men who can also raise their voices against the system.
- Experiment with truth and non-violence is varied and veridical per topics/issues. Law and order are truly followed in this mode of action.
- Participation in moves and movements inculcates a sense of tolerance, labour, patience, valour and dedication.
- Along with picketing foreign clothes and liquor shops, I would have systematically removed the foreign or alien demands that dwell in my heart in form of anger, jealousy, ostentation etc.
4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Ans: when the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits. Gandhiji believed separate electorates Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, one of the leaders of the Muslim League was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates if Muslims were assured a reserved seat in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to the population in the Muslim-dominated provinces. Negotiations over the question of representation continued but all hope of resolving the issue at the parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts at compromise.
1. Find out about the anti-colonial movement in Indo-chin. Compare and contrast India’s national movement with the way in which Indo-China became independent.
Additional Questions and Answers
Multiple choice question:
1. when was the national movement spreading in India?
a) after 1919
b) after 1920
c) after 1928
d) after 1915
Ans: a) after 1919
2. during the war the prices of commodity increased_____________
a) between 1912 and 1918
b) between 1913 and 1918
c) between 1911 and 1915
d) between 1913 and 1919
Ans: b) between 1913 and 1918
3. what was the cause of the influenza epidemic?
a) due to war
b) due to crop failed
c) due to a shortage of food
d) all of them
Ans: c) due to a shortage of food
4. when was Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa?
a) in January 1915
b) in January 1914
c) in January 1916
d) in January 1913
Ans: a) in January 1915
5. when and where did the first satyagraha take place?
a) 1917 in Champaran, Bihar
b) 1917 in Kheda district of Gujarat
c) 1918 in Ahmedabad
Ans: a) 1917 in Champaran, Bihar
6. when was the Rowlatt Act passed?
7. The Rowlatt Act was passed by
a) Sidney Rowlatt
b) Rowlatt Committee
Ans: b) Rowlatt Committee
8. when was the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place?
a) on 13 April 1919
b) on 13 May 1919
c)on 15 April 1919
d) on 13 June 1919
Ans: a) on 13 April 1919
9. when was a Khilafat Committee was formed?
a) in Gujrat in march 1919
b) in Bihar in May 1919
c)in Pune in May 1919
d) in Bombay in March 1919
Ans: d) in Bombay in March 1919
10. who organised the khilafat movement?
a) Mahatma Gandhi
b) Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali
d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Ans: b) Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali
11. when was non-corporation movement started?
a) 5 September 1920
b) 5 October 1920
c) 5 September 1919
d) 5 October 1919
Ans: a) 5 September 1920
12.The Hind Swaraj book was published in
13. when was the non-corporation-khilafat movement started?
a) January 1920
b) January 1919
c) January 1918
d) January 1921
Ans: d) January 1921
14. who was leading peasants In Awadh?
a) Baba Ramchandra
b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Mahatma Gandhi
d) Vallabhbhai Patel
Ans: a) Baba Ramchandra
15. when was Inland Emigration Act passed?
Ans: b) 1859
16. when was Alluri Sitaram Raju captured?
Ans: b) 1924
17. when was the non-corporation movement stop?
a) In February 1922
b) in February 1921
c) in February 1920
d) in February 1919
Ans: a) In February 1922
18. who were formed the Swaraj Party?
a) C. R. Das and Mahatma Gandhi
b) Mahatma Gandhi and Motilal Nehru
c) C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru
d) C. R. Das and subhas Chandra Bose
Ans: c) C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru
19. When did the Simon Commission arrive in India?
a) in 1928
b) in 1920
c) in 1919
d) in 1921
Ans: a) in 1928
20. when was the Lahore Congress formalised the demand for ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India?
a) in December 1919
b) in December 1920
c) in December 1925
d) In December 1929
Ans: d) In December 1929
21. when would be celebrated as Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence?
a) 26 January 1930
b) 26 January 1920
c) 26 January 1919
d) 26 January 1931
Ans: a) 26 January 1930
22. who and when was the letter sent to Viceroy Lord Irwin starting eleven demands?
a) On 20th January 1930 by Mahatma Gandhi
b) On 21st January 1930 by Mahatma Gandhi
c) On 26th January 1930 by Mahatma Gandhi
d) On 31st January 1930 by Mahatma Gandhi
Ans: d) On 31st January 1930 by Mahatma Gandhi
23. to whom the letter of demand was sent by Mahatma Gandhi?
a) general dyer
b) viceroy lord Irwin
Ans: b) viceroy lord Irwin
24. when was the salt movement started?
a)12 march 1930
b)12 march 1931
c)12 march 1932
Ans: a)12 march 1930
25. how many days was the volunteer walked?
a) 24 days
b) 22 days
c) 21 days
d) 20 days
Ans: a) 24 days
26. when and where was the salt ceremonially ended?
a) On 3rd April at Dandi
b) On 6th April at Dandi
c) On 7th April at Dandi
d) On 8th April at Dandi
Ans: b) On 6th April at Dandi
27. when was Abdul Ghaffar Khan arrested?
a) On March 1930,
b) On May 1930,
c) On April 1930,
d) On June 1930,
Ans: c) On April 1930
28. when was Gandhi- Irwin’s pact start?
a) 4th March
b) 5th March 1931
c) 6th March 1931
d) 7th March 1931
Ans: b) 5th March 1931
29. by whom and when was Vande Mataram written?
a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870
b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1872
c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1873
d) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1871
Ans: a) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870
30. who has painted the image of Bharat Mata?
a) Rabindranath Tagore
b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
c) Abanindranath Tagore
Ans: c) Abanindranath Tagore
31. when was the quit movement started?
a)8 august 1942
b) 8 august 1945
c) 8 august 1941
d) 8 august 1943
Ans: a)8 august 1942
32. Who led the peasants In Awadh in 1920?
a) Baba Ramchandra
b) Vallabh bhai Patel
c) Jawaharlal Nehru
d) Mahatma Gandhi
Ans: a) Baba Ramchandra
33. Who led the peasants in Bardoli in 1928?
a) Baba Ramchandra
b) Vallabh bhai Patel
c) Jawaharlal Nehru
d) Mahatma Gandhi
Ans: b) Vallabh bhai Patel
Short answer type question
1. what was the effect of the first world war?
Ans: the war created a new economic and political situation in the country. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced. Through the war years, the prices of commodities increased.
2. where did the satyagraha take place?
Ans: Satyagraha started in Champaran in Bihar in 1917. Then in 1917, he organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
3. what do you mean by satyagraha?
Ans: The racist regime with a novel mass agitation method is called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
4. what is Rowlatt Act?
Ans: Rowlatt Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. The British colonial government passed the Rowlatt Act which gave powers to the police to arrest any person without any reason whatsoever. The act was passed in 1919.
5. what was the Movement against Rowlatt Act in 1919?
Ans: The Rallies were organized in various cities against the Rowlatt act. The workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down. The Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was banned from entering Delhi.
6. what was happen in Jalianwala Bagh?
Ans: On 13 April 1919 a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures. Some came to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Dyer (Reginald Dyer) entered the area and blocked the exit points, started firing on the crowd, and killed lots of people.
7. who was Alluri Sitaram Raju in movements?
Ans: Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he had a variety of special powers: he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots. Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement and persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking.
8. what do you mean by swaraj in the plantation?
Ans: For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
9. Under which act workers were not permitted to leave the tea garden?
Ans: Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.
10. what was the cause to stop the Non-Cooperation movement?
Ans: In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw from the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
11. What do you mean by forced recruitment?
Ans: Forced recruitment means a process in which the colonial state forced people to join the army during the world war.
12. Why was Satyagraha also known as passive resistance?
Ans: passive resistance is the weapon of the weak but power which is the subject of this article can be used only by strong people. This power is not passive resistance, indeed it calls for intense activity.
13. Why were Muslims angry with British policy in Turkey?
Ans: The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. There were rumors that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
13. why was the proposed Rowlatt act?
Ans: Gandhi ji in 1919 decided to launch nationwide satyagraha against propose Rowlatt act. This act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian member.
14. Describe the khilafat movement?
Ans: The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumors that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa). To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
15. which things were boycotted in the non-corporation movement by Gandhiji?
Ans: The non-corporation movement should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, the army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
16. How did the movement start in the town?
Ans: The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power – something that usually only Brahmans had access to.
Long answers type questions
1. How did the first world war help in the growth of the national movement in India?
Ans: after the first world war, Mahatma Gandhi became more aware and active. He started protesting against the British. He did the satyagraha movement, salt movement, swaraj movement in plantation, quit the movement, and many more for the freedom of India.
satyagraha movement: The racist regime with a novel mass agitation method is called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
salt movement: The March was over 240 miles, from Gandhi Ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarat coastal town of Dandi. The volunteer walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day.
swaraj movement in plantation: For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
2. Who started Satyagraha? Explain the concept of Satyagraha.
What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
How can battles be fought with Satyagraha?
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi started Satyagraha in 1915. The racist regime with a novel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
3. Write a short note on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Ans: On 13 April the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Dyer (Reginald Dyer) entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. His object, as he declared later, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe. As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police, and attacks on government buildings.
4. Discuss the salt march to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Ans: The March was over 240 miles, from Gandhi Ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarat coastal town of Dandi. The volunteer walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. On 6th April he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater. The Peasants were refused to pay revenue and Chaukidari taxes. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested for protesting of salt movement. The industrial workers of Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts, and railway stations. The frightened government attacked satyagrahis women, children were beaten and about 1,00,000 people were arrested. In this situation, Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the movement and entered into Lord Irwin’s pact on 5th March 1931.
5. Explain Quit India Movement.
Ans: The failure of the Cripps Mission and the effects of World War II created widespread discontentment in India. This led Gandhiji to launch a movement calling for a complete withdrawal of the British from India. The Congress Working Committee, in its meeting in Wardha on 14 July 1942, passed the historic ‘Quit India’ resolution demanding the immediate transfer of power to Indians and quitting India. On 8 August 1942 in Bombay, the All-India Congress Committee endorsed the resolution which called for a non-violent mass struggle on the widest possible scale throughout the country. It was on this occasion that Gandhiji delivered the famous ‘Do or Die’ speech. The call for ‘Quit India’ almost brought the state machinery to a standstill in large parts of the country as people voluntarily threw themselves into the thick of the movement. The movement was truly a mass movement that had the active participation of leaders, namely, Jayprakash Narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, and Ram Manohar Lohia, and many women such as Matangini Hazra in Bengal, Kanaklata Barua in Assam and Rama Devi in Odisha.
The British responded with much force, yet it took more than a year to suppress the movement.
6. What was the aim to painted Bharat Mata?
Ans: India has diversity in the country. People need symbols to unite. Bharat Mata image gives them to identify the nation. The image was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In 1870, he wrote Vande Mataram as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. Moved the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In the painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure: she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. subsequent forms, as it circulated popular prints, painted mother figures came seen as evidence of nationalism.
7. Discuss the drawback of movements in towns or cities.
Ans: The movement in the cities gradually slows down for many reasons. Khadi cloth was more expensive than mass production of mill cloths. That’s why people could not afford to buy it. So they could not properly boycott mill cloth for a long time. Similarly, the boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the success of the movement, firstly Indian institutions had to be set up so that people can use Indian institutions in place of a British institutions.
8. Describe the role of Baba Ramchandra.
Ans: Baba Ramchandra was a sanyasi and Fiji an indentured labourer. He led the peasants in movement in Awadh in 1920. The movement here was against talikdars and landlords who demanded high rents and a variety of cesses from peasants. Peasants had to do begar and work on landlords’ farms without any payment. The peasant movement demanded reduced revenue, and abolition of beggar. By October 1920, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra, and a few others. Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the villages around the region to solve the problem.
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