Exercise Questions and Answers
1. Multiple choice question:
(i) Which one of the following minerals is formed by the decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
Ans: (b) bauxite
(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(c) iron ore
Ans: (b) mica
(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks?
(a) sedimentary rocks
(c) igneous rocks
(b) metamorphic rocks
(d) none of the above
Ans: (a) sedimentary rocks
(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?
Ans: (c) thorium
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.
(a) ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.
|Ferrous minerals are metallic minerals containing iron.||Non-ferrous minerals are also metallic but do not contain iron.|
|Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.||India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals are not satisfactory.|
|They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.||Non-ferrous minerals including copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold play a vital role in metallurgical, engineering, and electric industries.|
(b) Distinguish conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
|Conventional sources||Non-conventional sources|
|Conventional sources include firewood, cattle dung, cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity.||Non-conventional sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, and atomic energy.|
|All conventional sources of energy except hydroelectricity are exhaustible.||Most of the non-conventional sources of energy are inexhaustible.|
|These sources require huge capital.||These sources require small capital.|
(ii) What is a mineral?
Ans: Geologists define a mineral as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.” Rocks are combinations of homogenous substances called minerals.
Minerals are found in varied forms in nature ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.
(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
Ans: In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger ones are called lodes. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.
(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?
Ans: We need to conserve mineral resources for the reasons mentioned below:
- The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption.
- Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. Rich mineral deposits are our country’s extremely valuable but short-lived possessions.
- Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with a decrease in quality.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.
Ans: In India, coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages-
- Gondwana (200 million years old)
- tertiary deposits (55 million years old)
- The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, and Bokaro are important coalfields.
- The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son, and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
- Tertiary coals occur in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Nagaland.
(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?
Ans: Solar energy has a bright future in India because
- India is blessed with plenty of solar energy because it has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.
- India has developed technology to use solar energy for cooking, water heating, space heating, crop drying, etc.
- It is an abundant, inexhaustible, and universal source of energy.
- India is a tropical country.
- Solar energy is popular in rural and remote areas.
Fill the name of the correct mineral in the crossword below:
1. A ferrous mineral (9)
2. Raw material for the cement industry (9)
3. Finest iron ore with magnetic properties (9)
4. Highest quality hard coal (10)
5. Aluminium is obtained from this ore (7)
6. Khetri mines are famous for this mineral (6)
7. Formed due to evaporation (6)
1. Found in placer deposit (4)
2. Iron ore mined in Bailadila (8)
3. Indispensable for the electrical industry (4)
4. Geological Age of coal found in northeast India (8)
5. Formed in veins and lodes (3)
Additional questions and answers
Multiple choice question and answer
1. Earth’s crust made up of
- Different kinds of minerals
- Same kind of minerals
Ans: a) Different kinds of minerals
2. metals are extracted
- Before refinement
- After refinement
- Direct from mineral
Ans: b) after refinement
3. Rocks are combinations of ____________substance.
Ans: a) homogeneous
4. Igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals occurred____
- In cracks, crevices, faults or joints
- In joints, rock
- In cracks or surface
Ans: a) In cracks, crevices, faults or joints
5. In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur
- In joints
- In cracks
- In beds or layers
Ans: c) in beds or layers
6. which minerals did we get from ocean water?
- Common salt, magnesium, bromine
- Gold, silver, salt
- Iron, manganese
Ans: a) Common salt, magnesium, bromine
7. India is fortunate to have______
- Variety of Rock
- Variety of Mineral
- Variety of climate
Ans: b) Variety of Mineral
8. a mineral ‘deposit’ or ‘reserve’ turns into
- a mine
- a place
- a godown
Ans: a) a mine
9. ferrous minerals are __________ of total minerals?
Ans: b) three-fourth
10. What is the backbone of industrial development?
- Common salt
- Iron ore
Ans: c) iron ore
11. magnetite content _______ percentage of iron.
Ans: b) 70
12. what percentage of iron does India produce in 2018-19?
Ans: a) 90%
13. from where iron ore is exported?
- Jharkhand port
- Mumbai port
- Marmagao port
Ans: c) Marmagao port
14. where does manganese used?
- Industry of iron
- Manufacturing of steel
- Manufacturing of coal
Ans: b) Manufacturing of steel
15. India is deficient in the reserve and production of ___________
Ans: b) copper
16. aluminium comes from __________
Ans: c) Bauxite
17. which state produce the largest bauxite in 2016-17?
Ans: a) Odisha
18. Mica used in ___________
- Electronic Industries
- Coal industries
- Steel Industries
Ans: a) Electronic industries
19. minerals resources are ______________
- Finite and renewable
- Infinite and renewable
- Finite and non-renewable
Ans: c) Finite and non-renewable
20. where did lignite reserve?
- in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu
- in Pune in Maharashtra
- in Kolkata in west Bengal
Ans: a) in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu
21. which coal is used for commercial use?
Ans: b) Bituminous
Short question and answer
1. what is manufactured from minerals?
Ans: Cars, buses, trains, and aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth.
2. how do humans use minerals?
Ans: human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities and ceremonial rites.
3. what is a mineral?
Ans: Geologists define a mineral as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.”
Rocks are combinations of homogenous substances called minerals.
4. Where are these minerals found?
Ans: Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The term ore is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements.
5. what are veins and lodes?
Ans: In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger is called lodes.
6. what did we get from veins and lodes?
Ans: Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.
7. what are ferrous minerals?
Ans: Ferrous Minerals Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. India exports substantial quantities of ferrous minerals after meeting her internal demands.
8. describe Indian production of iron ore in 2018-19?
Ans: In 2018–19 almost the entire production of iron ore (97%) accrued from Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Jharkhand. The remaining production (3%) was from other states.
9. what are the uses of manganese?
Ans: Manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel. It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.
10. what are non-ferrous minerals?
Ans: Non-ferrous minerals include copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold. It helps in the metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.
11. what is mica?
Ans: Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets. These sheets are divided into thousand layered. Mica can be clear, black, green, red yellow or brown.
12. what is limestone?
Ans: Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and is essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
13. why energy is required?
Ans: Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, provide light and heat, propel vehicles and drive machinery in industries.
14. how does energy generate?
Ans: Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, and uranium and from electricity.
15. what are conventional and non-conventional sources of energy?
Ans: the conventional sources of energy are coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity.
The non-conventional sources of energy are nuclear or atomic energy, solar energy, wind power, biogas, tidal energy, and geothermal energy.
16. describe the first GAIL project.
Ans: The first 1,700 KM long Hazira-VijaipurJagdishpur (HVJ) cross-country gas pipeline, constructed by GAIL (India), linked Mumbai High and Bassein gas fields with various fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
17. how many parts of electricity can be divided?
Ans: Electricity is generated mainly in two ways: by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydroelectricity; and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.
Long answer type question
1. Where did minerals occur?
Ans: Minerals generally occur in these forms:
- In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger is called lodes. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.
- In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. Other groups of sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt.
- The decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way.
- Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in the sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals like gold, silver, tin, and platinum.
- The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals like common salt, magnesium and bromine.
2. describe placer deposits.
Ans: Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in the sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals, which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are the most important among such minerals.
3. why is India fortunate?
Ans: India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources. However, these are unevenly distributed. Broadly speaking, peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. The vast alluvial plains of north India are almost devoid of economic minerals.
4. describe iron ore?
Ans: Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. India is rich in good-quality iron ores. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite. (50-60 per cent)
5. describe iron ore belts in India?
Ans: The major iron ore belts in India are:
- Odisha-Jharkhand belt: In Odisha high grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. In the adjoining Singbhum district of Jharkhand haematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.
- Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt: Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high grade hematites are found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. The range of hills comprise of 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore. It has the best physical properties needed for steel making. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.
- Ballari-Chitradurga-ChikkamagaluruTumakuru belt: ballari-Chitradurga-ChikkamagaluruTumakuru belt in Karnataka has large reserves of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudremukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world. The ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangaluru.
- Maharashtra-Goa belt: Maharashtra-Goa belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Though the ores are not of very high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. Iron ore is exported through Marmagao port.
6. write short notes on non-ferrous minerals
a) Copper: copper is malleable, ductile and a good conductor. copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, the Khetri mines in Rajasthan and the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper.
b) Bauxite: Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates. Aluminium comes from bauxite. India’s bauxite deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni. Odisha was the largest bauxite-producing state in India in 2016-17. Panchpatmali deposits in the Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.
7. describe mica producer areas?
Ans: Mica deposits are found on the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer. In Rajasthan, the major mica-producing area is around Ajmer. The nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is also an important producer in the country.
8. write short notes on non-metallic minerals
a) mica: Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets. These sheets are divided into thousand layered. Mica can be clear, black, green, red yellow or brown.
b) rock minerals: Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and is essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
9. describe energy?
Ans: Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, provide light and heat, propel vehicles and drive machinery in industries. Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources. Conventional sources include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal). Non-conventional sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.
10. describe one of the sources of energy.
Cola:In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. It is used for power generation, supply of energy to industry, and domestic needs. Coal is found in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial.
- Lignite is a low-grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content.
- Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal.
- Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal.
- Jharia, Raniganj, and Bokaro are important coalfields.
Petroleum: Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy source in India after coal. It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.
- Petroleum refineries act as a “nodal industry” for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. Most of the petroleum occurrences in India
- Mumbai High, Gujarat and Assam are major petroleum production areas in India. From the map locate the 3 major offshore fields of western India.
11. write short notes on any two non-conventional sources of energy.
Nuclear or Atomic Energy
- It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electric power.
- Uranium and Thorium are used for generating atomic or nuclear power.
- Uranium and Thorium are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan. The Monazite sands of Kerala are also rich in Thorium.
- India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.
- Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.
- Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas.
- Some big solar power plants are being established in different parts of India which will minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.
12. how energy resources are conservated?
Ans: Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of the national economy – agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic – needs inputs of energy.
In this background, there is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. The promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy.
India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. For example, as concerned citizens we can do our bit by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles; switching off electricity when not in use, using power-saving devices and using non-conventional sources of energy. After all, “energy saved is energy produced”.
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