CBSE 10 Social Studies Federalism Questions and Answers

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Exercise Questions and Answers

1. Locate the following states on a blank outline political map of India; Manipur, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, and Goa.

2. Identify and shade three federal countries (other than India) on a blank outline political map of the world.

3. Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.

Ans: Similar Feature: India and Belgium both are democratic countries. They have divided their political power between the constituent states and the national government. Both are examples of holding federalism. In both countries, the central governments tend to be more powerful vis-à-vis the states.

Different Feature: In feature India, some units of the federation have unequal powers and some units have been granted special power such as Jammu and Kashmir. But this is not prevailing in Belgium. In Indian Constitution, although the word ‘federation’ has not been used, the Indian Union is based on the principle of federation.

4. What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.  

Ans: Differences are discussed below:

 Unitary systemFederal system
A.Under the unitary system, there is only one level of government. The unitary system has its power.Under the federal system, the power is divided among the union or central government and state government.
B.In a unitary system, whole powers are controlled and managed by the union government.In the federal system, the central government cannot order the state government.
C.In a unitary system, only the union government is answerable to the public.  In the federal system, the central government and state government both are answerable to the people.

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5. State any two differences between the local government before and after the constitutional amendment in 1992.

Ans: A. Before 1992, constitutionally it was not mandatory to hold regular election to the local government bodies. However, it was made regular after 1992.

B. Before 1992, there was no reservation for women in all states. But after 1992 at least 1/3 of seats are reserved for women in local government bodies.

6. Fill in the blanks

Since the United States is a coming-together type of federation, all the Constituent States have equal power, and States are strong vis-à-vis the federal government. But India is a holding-together type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the Central government has more power.

7. Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions.

Sangeeta: The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity.

Arman: Language-based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.

Harish: This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other Languages.

Ans: According to my opinion, this statement by Sangeeta is correct. The government of India agreed to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes to avoid the linguistic supremacy of a particular language. Otherwise, the movement against Hindi would have the issue worse. Thus, the policy of the government has strengthened national unity.

8. The distinguishing feature of a federal government is:

      a) National government gives some powers to the provincial governments.

      b) Power is distributed among the legislature, executive, and judiciary.

      c) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.

      d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.

Ans: d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.

9. A few subjects in various lists of The Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the union, state, and concurrent lists as provided in the table below.

a) Defence; b) Police; c) Agriculture; d) Education; e) Banking; f) Forests; g) Communications; h) Trades; i) Marriages;

Ans:

Union ListDefence, Communications, Banking
State ListPolice, Agriculture, Trade
Concurrent ListEducation, forests, Marriage

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10. Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the power of government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

a. state governmentState list
b. central governmentUnion list
c. central and state governmentConcurrent list
d. local governmentResiduary powers

Ans: d) is not correctly matched.

11. Match list I with list II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List IList II
1. Union of Indiaa. Prime minister
2. Stateb. Sarpanch
3. Municipal corporationc. Governor
4. Gram panchayatd. Mayor

Options

 1234
a.DABC
b.BCDA
c.ACDB
d.CDAB

Ans: c) A, C, D, B

List IList II
a. Union of Indiaa. Prime minister
b. Statec. Governor
c. Municipal corporationd. Mayor
d. Gram panchayatb. Sarpanch

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12. Consider the following two statements.

A. In a federation the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated.

B. India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction over their respective subjects.

C. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces.

D. India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) A, B, and C           

(b) A, C, and D         

(c) A and B only                    

(d) B and C only

Ans: (c) A and B only                    

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Additional Questions and Answers

A. Multiple choice questions. (1 mark each)

1. Which among the following is an example of the Unitary system of government?                                                      

a) Sri Lanka                                     

b) Belgium                                                                                                                                    

c) both Sir Lanka and Belgium     

d) none of the above

Ans: a) Sri Lanka                                     

2. which of the following statements are true about the federalism system of government?

a) federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

b) in federalism there is usually more than one level of government for the entire county.

c) in federalism there will be a government at the level of provinces or states that look after much of the day-to-day administering of their state.

d) all the above statements are true

Ans: d) all the above statements are true

3. Name any two countries in the west having a federal form of government.                            

a) USA and Canada.                                         

b) Sri Lanka and India                                                                                      

c) Belgium and Russia                                     

d) none of the above

Ans: a) USA and Canada.                                         

4. the nature of the Indian federal system?                                                                     

a) coming together                                   

b) holding together                                                                                             

c) both coming together and holding together    

d) all of them

Ans: b) holding together                                                                                             

5. Examples of ‘coming together’ federation.                                                                                    

a) USA                                  

b) Switzerland                                                                                                                                   

c) Australia                            

d) all of the above

Ans: d) all of the above

6. Which government can make law on subjects included in the state government list?                                            

a) union government                                                                     

b) state government                                                     

c) both union government and state government                  

d) panchayat

Ans: c) both union government and state government                  

7. Which state of India has its own constitution?

a) Jammu and Kashmir                           

b) Chhattisgarh                                                                                                                   

c) Delhi                                                        

d) none of the above

Ans: a) Jammu and Kashmir                           

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8. How many languages are recognized as scheduled languages by the Indian Constitution?

a) 27 languages                             

b) 32 languages                                                                                                                         

c) 22 languages                              

d) 12 languages

Ans: c) 22 languages                              

9. What is the status of Hindi in India?                                                                                                               

a) local language                      

b) official language                                                                                                                     

c) unofficial language            

d) both a and b

Ans: b) official language                                                                                                                     

10. How many seats in the local government bodies are reserved for women?                                                            

a) half of all positions                          

b) one-fourth of all the positions                                                                         

c) equal of the positions                    

d) one-third of all positions

Ans: d) one-third of all positions

11. What is Rural local self-government popularly known as?                                                                     

a) Panchayati Raj                                     

b) Gram Sabha                                                                                                                

c) Mayor                                                   

d) All of the above

Ans: d) one-third of all positions

12. Who are members of the Gram Sabha in a village?                 

a) Gram Sabha              

b) Mayor                                                                                                                            

c) Gram Samiti               

d) none of the above

Ans: a) Gram Sabha              

13. Which local body has a ‘Mayor’ as its head?

a) Head of Municipal Corporation             

b) official body of gram panchayat 

Ans: a) Head of Municipal Corporation             

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14. Much of the official work in Indian States is done in which language?

 a) State language                 

b) Official language                                                                                                                             

c) English                                

d) all the above

Ans: d) all the above

15. How many levels does the federation government have?                                             

a) 2                                             

b) 3                                                                                                                                                                

c) 5                                               

d) none of them

Ans: a) 2                                             

16. Fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be changed by                                             

a) union government consent                 

b) states government consent                                                                        

c) both government consent                    

d)none of them

Ans: c) both government consent                    

17. The high court act as                                               

a) umpire                                             

b) leader                                                                                                                               

c) judge                                               

d) all of them

Ans: a) umpire                                             

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B. Short answer type questions

18. What is federalism?

Ans: Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

19. What is the objective of the federal System?                             

Ans: The federal system has dual objectives; to safeguard and promote the unity of the country.

20. Describe the formation of the federation.

Ans: there are two kinds of the route through which federations are formed: a) coming together federations.

21. How can the fundamental provisions of the constitution be changed or amended in a federal system of government?                                                                                                    

Ans: The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the permission of both levels of government.

22. What other factors besides politics keep the federations united?

Ans: Besides politics other factors that keep federations united are:

•          Power-sharing arrangements between the central and state governments

•          Independent role of the judiciary

•          Language unity power

•          Take responsibility for conflicting

•          Active participation of the people.

23. What are residuary subjects? Who can make law on these subjects?

Ans: the Subjects which are not mentioned in the union list and the state list are known as residuary subjects. The Union Government has the power to make laws on residuary subjects.

24. What is the concurrent list?

Ans: The subject which is a common interest of both central or union and state government is known as a concurrent list. Both union and state governments can make low on the subjects which are included in this list.

25. Name any two Union Territories.

Ans: Chandigarh and Lakshadweep.

26. distinguish between the unitary and federal system of government.

Ans: differences are discussed below:

 Unitary systemFederal system
i.Under the unitary system, there is only one level of government. The unitary system has its own power.Under the federal system, the power is divided among the union or central government and state government.
ii.In a unitary system, whole powers are controlled and managed by the union government.In the federal system, the central government cannot order the state government.
iii.In a unitary system, only the union government is answerable to the public.In the federal system, the central government and state government both are answerable to the people.

click here for federalism notes.

27. What happened in Pokharan? Where is it?

Ans: Pokharan is the place where India conducted its nuclear tests. It is in Rajasthan.

28. What is decentralisation?

Ans: When power is taken away from the central and state government and given to the local government, it is called decentralisation. The power is distributed from higher to lower levels.

29. What was the main objective of the Constitutional Amendment made in 1992 in India? (

Ans: The main objective of the Constitutional Amendment in 1992 was to strengthen the three-tier system of governance, and make the urban local bodies more powerful and effective.

30. Distinguish between ‘coming together’ and ‘holding together’ types of federations.

Ans: The differences between the two are as mentioned below:

 Coming together federationsHolding together federations
i.These forms of federations are formed by independent states that come together independently.In these federations, the large country decides to divide the power between the constituent states and the national government.
ii.they can increase their security by pooling sovereignty and retaining identityThe central government is more powerful than the states
iii.examples of this type of federation are the USA, Switzerland, and Australia.examples of this type of federation are India, Spain, and Belgium.

C. Long answer type questions

31. How are legislative powers divided between the Union government and state government?

Ans: Division of legislative powers:

The Constitution clearly provided threefold distribution of legislative power:

Union list

  • It includes subjects of national importance such as the defense of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications, and currency.
  • These are included in this list because we need a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country.
  • The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects in the Union list.

State list

  • This list contains subjects of state and local importance such as police, trade commerce, agriculture, and irrigation.
  • The State Governments alone can make laws relating to these subjects.

Residuary powers

  • These include the subjects not included in the three lists or subjects like computer software that came up after the Constitution was made.
  • The central govt, can make laws on such subjects.

32. What are the salient features of federalism in India?

Ans: The salient features of federalism in India are as mentioned below:

  • There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.
  • Each level of government has its own jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation, and administration even though they govern the same citizens.
  • Powers and functions of each tier of government are specified and guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • The fundamental provision of the constitution cannot change by any one level of government. The changes require the consent of both levels of government.
  • The court has the power to interpret the constitution and the power of government. If disputes arise between different level of government, then the highest court act as an umpire.
  • Source of revenue ensure the financial autonomy of the government.
  • The federal system has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote the unity of the country.

33. “All the States in the Indian union do not have identical powers.” Explain.

                                                    Or

Describe special powers or provisions for some States in India.

Ans: Some States enjoy special powers as given below:

Jammu and Kashmir: Under Article 370, the state is required to make laws in matters mentioned in the Union and state Lists. Jammu and Kashmir have their own constitutions so only residents can buy land or house.

North-Eastern states such as Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, and Mizoram have a sizeable indigenous tribal population with a distinct history and culture which can be retained under Article 371.

There are areas that are too small to become an independent State but which could not be merged with any of the existing States. Such areas are Chandigarh or Lakshadweep or the Capital city of Delhi. These are known as Union Territories. These territories do not have the powers of a state. The central government has special powers in running these areas.

click here for federalism notes.

34. Explain the major steps taken towards decentralisation for making the third tier of government more powerful.

Ans: The major steps taken towards decentralisation for making the third-tier of government more powerful as mentioned below :

  • All the states are beginning to make panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas. These bodies were controlled by state governments. The Constitution was amended to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

The main provisions of the Constitutional Amendment (1992) towards decentralisation were as mentioned below:

  • Constitutionally mandatory to hold elections to local government bodies.
  • Reservation of seats in elected bodies and executive heads for SC/ST/OBCs.
  • Reservation of 1/3 seats for women.
  • Creation of a State Election Commission to conduct elections of local bodies.
  • State governments to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from state to state.

35. Explain any five features of the Panchayati Raj system in India.

Ans: local government is popularly known by the name Panchayati raj.

Panchayat Raj feathers

  • Panchayati raj has several ward members (panch) and a president (sarpanch).
  • They are directly elected by all the adult population living in that ward or village.
  • Panchayat is the head of the entire village.
  • It works under gram sabha.
  • Gram Sabha meets twice or thrice a year to approve the annual budget of the gram panchayat and to review its performance.

36. Explain democratic policies adopted by the Government of India which made it a successful federation.

                                                   Or

Why has federalism succeeded in India? Which three policies adopted by India have ensured this success?

Ans: The constitutional provisions are necessary for the success of federalism but it is not sufficient. The democratic politics of India are the main reason for the success of federalism in India. These are the way in which this happened:

Linguistic states: The creation of linguistic states was the first test of the democratic politics of our country. The journey of democracy began in 1947. The several states were changed into new states to ensure that the people who speak the same language lived in the same state. some states were created on the basis of culture, ethnicity, or geography. Like Nagaland, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand.

Language policy: The language policy is the second test of the Indian federation. India is a diversity with language country. Indian constitution made Hindi the official language of the country. But Hindi is the mother tongue of 40 percent of people. Besides Hindi, 21 other languages are scheduled languages by the constitution.

Centre-state relations: Centre-state relations have been strengthening in federalism. The constitutional arrangements depend on how the ruling parties and leaders follow. The same party rules at states and the central government cannot enjoy autonomous federal unit’s rights.

 The success of federalism in India depends on the nature of democratic politics in the country. The idea of respect for diversity and desire for living together.

37. Explain the vertical division of power by giving examples from India.

Ans: The power is shared at different levels of government: the Union or the Central Government, the State Government, and the Municipality and Panchayat at the lower level. This division of power involving higher and lower levels of government is called the vertical division of power.

Vertical division of power in India:

The Constitution declares India as a Union of States. It is based on the principles of the federation. The Constitution provides a two-tier system of government, the Union Government and the State Governments. The third tier of the federation was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. These different tiers enjoy separate jurisdictions. The Constitution provides a three-fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and the State Government. It is a union list, state list, and residual list.

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