Some Facts regarding the population of Indians.
- Total Population of India – 1,21,01,93422 person.
- Male population-62,37,24,248 persons (51.54%)
- Female population-58,64,69,174 persons (48.46%)
- Rate of increase in population— (a) Yearly — 1.76% (b) Decadal (2001-2011) —17.64%
- Total increase in population (2001-2011) — 18,15,83,094 persons
- Adult population (15-64 years) — 78.78 crore (66.2%)
- Non-adult population (0-14 years) — 35.58 crore (27.71%)
- Dependent population (over 65 years) — 7.71 crore (6.09%)
- Literacy rate —74.04% (a) Male — 82.14%, (b) Female — 65.46%
- Working population — 48.17 crore
- Non-working population —72.85 crore
- Life expectancy — 68.4 years (a) Male — 66.9 years (b) Female — 69.9 years
- Child death rate — 44 per 1000 children
- The density of population-382 persons per sq. km.
(a) State – Bihar-1102 persons per sq. km (highest) – Arunachal Pradesh-17 persons per sq. km (lowest),
(b) Union Territory—Delhi-11,297 persons per sq. km (highest)—Andaman and Nicobar Islands-46 persons per sq. km (lowest)
- Sex ratio-940 females per 1000 males.
(a) States—Kerala-1084 females per 1000 males (highest)—Haryana-877 females per 1000 males (lowest),
(b) Union Territories—Puducherry-1038 females per 1000 males (highest)—Daman & Diu — 618 females per 1000 males (lowest)
1. What do you mean by Census?
- Official Counting of population and systematic data collection of various attributes of the population and its compiling and analysis is known as Census.
- In India, the census is conducted every 10 years.
- The first census survey in India was conducted in 1872.
- The last survey was conducted in 2011, and the next one will be held in 2021.
- According to the 2011 census, population density of India is 382 people per sq.km.
2. Mention the reasons for the population explosion in India.
- The phenomenon of the sudden increase of population in leaps and bounds within a short time is known as population explosion.
- In India, the various causes of population explosion are —
- A. High birth rate due to lack of education, poverty, superstitions, religious beliefs, child marriage, etc.
- B. Lowered death rates due to improvement in medical facilities, transport and communication system, etc.
- C. In-migration from the neighboring counties in huge numbers.
- D. Increase in food production and industrial development due to advancement of science and technology.
- E. Control of hazards and natural calamities.
- F. Improved conditions of life and improved standards of living.
3. Name the four most populated states of India?
- The four most populated states of India according to the 2011 census are-
- 1st — Uttar Pradesh (19 crores 96 Lakh)
- 2nd — Maharashtra (11 crores 24 Lakh)
- 3rd — Bihar (10 crores 38 Lakh)
- 4th — West Bengal (9 crores 13 Lakh)
4. Name the four most densely populated states of India.
- The four most densely populated states of India according to the 2011 census are
- 1st — Bihar (1,102 people per sq. km)
- 2nd—West Bengal (1,029 people per sq. km)
- 3rd —Kerala (859 people per sq. km)
- 4th — Uttar Pradesh (828 people per sq. km)
5. According to the census 2011, Which state of India has the least density of Population and why?
- According to the census of 2011 among all the states of India, Arunachal Pradesh has the least density of population (only 17 people per sq.km).
- The reasons for this low density of population are
- A. Highly mountainous and rough terrain.
- B. Harsh climatic conditions.
- C. Dense forests on the hill slopes and foothills.
- D. Poor transport and communication systems.
- E. Lack of economic development, etc.
6. What do you mean by sustainable development? Or, what is sustainable development?
- The concept of betterment and development of the increasing population, management of resources to meet their demands and conservation of resources for next generations, together is known as sustainable development.
- The concept of sustainable development is related to the betterment and development of the human resource all over the world over a long period of time.
- The main idea is to make the present resources adequately and abundantly available to the whole population and future generations.
7. Mention two problems of urbanisation in India.
Two problems of urbanisation in India are-
- A. Health hazards: The pollution caused by industries, motor vehicles, etc., create unhealthy conditions in the urban areas which may cause health hazards in the long-run.
- B. Traffic jams: The huge number of vehicles plying in the cities, the encroaching of footpaths by shops and stalls, etc., altogether lead to very slow traffic movement. This creates frequent traffic jams.
8. What do you mean by the ‘stagnation’ or stationary phase of Population growth?
- When a population of a region does not change but remain constant over a period of time, it is known as ‘Stagnation of population growth’.
- This may happen when balanced by negative increase of population.
- Stagnation of population = Birth rate + In-Migration = Death Rate + Out Migration.
- Stagnation of population can be seen in Sweden and Switzerland.
- Why distribution of population density not equal all over India? OR, Discuss the reasons of uneven distribution of population of different regions in India. OR, Discuss the geographical causes of unequal distribution of population density in India.
- The distribution of population density is not equal throughout the India. In some regions there is a very high concentration of people while in some regions it is sparse.
- The main causes of this uneven distribution of population density in India are-
- Physical causes
- A. Topography: The mountainous regions of India in the north, north-east and in the southern states have very rugged and rough topography. These areas have less population. On the other hand, the Northern Plains and the Coastal Plains have gentle topography that support agriculture, industrial development, and other economic activities. These areas have high density of population.
- B. Climate: India broadly enjoys tropical monsoon climate. Climatic conditions over the Northern Plains, coastal regions and the Peninsular Plateau is moderate and suitable for living. These areas have high population densities. On the other hand, dry and harsh climate in the Kutch region of Gujarat, desert region of Rajasthan and the severe cold climate in the Himalayan mountainous region repel population concentration.
- C. Rivers: High concentrations of population are found in the river valleys of the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra in the north and the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, etc., in the south.
- This is because the rivers provide water for drinking, irrigation, navigation, pisciculture, hydroelectric power generation, etc. They also help to spread fertile alluvial soil for agriculture.
- Soil: The regions having rich fertile soils densely populated than the infertile regions. E.g., Alluvial soil of the river valleys and the rich black soil of the Deccan plateau region attract huge concentrations of population for agriculture.
- Forests: Presence of dense forests in the foothills of the Himalayas and the western Region of India.